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Interprocedural Data Flow Testing
Although a number of data flow testing methodologies have been developed and studied in recent years, [8, 11, 14, 15, 18, and 19] their utility has been restricted to testing data dependencies that exist within a procedure. Testing the data dependencies that exist among procedures requires information about the flow of data across procedure boundaries, including both calls and returns. The data dependencies that exist between procedures both directly over single calls and returns and indirectly over multiple calls and returns are needed.
The current data flow testing tools either use inter-procedural data flow analysis typically employed in compiler optimization to determine the data dependencies or determine the definition-use pairs from the source code by building and then searching the program’s def-use graph. Although inter-procedural data flow analysis algorithms do exist, [2-7, 9, 17] they do not provide the detailed information (i.e., the locations of definitions and uses that reach across both procedure calls and returns) needed for the inter-procedural data flow testing. Also, the methods for guiding the actual data flow testing do not currently handle the renaming of variables that is required when performing inter-procedural testing.
Inter-procedural Data Flow Testing
After the inter-procedural data flow information is computed and the required definition-use pairs are determined, the tester guides the selection and execution of the module with test cases as input. This consists of choosing the required definition-use pairs according to the desired testing criterion and processing the test cases until the required pairs are satisfied. The required definition-use pairs depend on the desired testing criterion. For example, if the criterion is ‘all-p-uses/some-c-uses’, the tester runs the acceptor with all definition-p-use pairs. If for a particular definition, no p-use exists, then some definition-c-use pairs must be accepted.
Processing a test case consists of (1) executing the module with the test data as input to get the test path and (2) running the test case acceptor with the test path and a definition-use pair as input. Our tester instruments the module at the intermediate code level. Intermediate code statements are inserted that output to a file the number of each basic block that is traversed during module execution. However, the execution path must also contain information that signals procedure calls and returns so that the renaming of formal and actual reference parameters can be handled. We accomplish this by instrument the intermediate code to indicate procedure calls and returns. It inputs the file containing the block numbers of the execution path (TRACEFILE) along with the information about the definition-use pair that is to be tested (VAR, DBLK, UBLKl, UBLK2, TY).
VAR represents the variable being considered and DBLK represents the block number containing the desired definition. TY is either c-use or pulse. If TY is c-use, then UBLKl contains the block number of the desired use and UBLK2 is not used; if TY is p-use, then (UBLKl, UBLK2) represents the desired edge. Since we also have access to the data flow information that was computed in the first phase, it is used to determine the set of blocks containing definitions, DEFSET, of the actual parameter at returns from procedures and the formal parameter at the entries to procedures. The entry into a procedure causes the DEFSET to be changed to reflect the renaming of the formal parameter that is bound to the definition being tested. The exit from a procedure causes the DEFSET to revert back to its value in the calling procedure.
To illustrate, consider the test case with input 4,8,9,2 where the definition-use pair being processed is the definition of K in B12 of procedure Pair-Max and the use is the edge (BlO, Bll). This definition of K reaches the use of other on edge (B 10,B 11) since it reaches over the return to calling procedure Get-Max, over the return to Get-Max through the recursive call, over the call to Get- Max again, and finally over the call to Pair-Max where the variable is bound to other. The steps involved in processing the test path are shown below. The DEFSET is initialized to the set of definitions of the variable corresponding to the definition that is being tested. At each call to and return from a procedure, the DEFSET is changed to reflect the new name of the actual or formal parameter. Since there are no inter-procedural definitions of the corresponding variable MX in Get-Max, the DEFSET is empty while processing the blocks in that procedure.
In this paper, we have extended data flow testing to include the testing of definitions that reach, and uses that can be reached, across procedure calls and returns. To do so, it required the development of an inter-procedural data flow analysis technique that computes the locations of inter-procedural reaching definitions and use pairings and the development of a testing methodology that associates actual and formal parameters in calls and returns. The benefit of the resulting testing system is that data flow testing can be uniformly applied to individual procedures for the integration of procedures in a module and to the interfaces of procedures
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