Characteristics Of Ability To Flow In Solid Liquid And Gas Understanding Hydrology

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Understanding Hydrology

Hydrology deals with all forms of water on earth, its occurrence, distribution, circulation, physical properties, chemical properties, its impact on the environment and on life of all forms. It is an interdisciplinary science. The study of the occurrence, distribution, and movement of water below the surface is known as groundwater hydrology.

About 97% of all water appears as salt water in the oceans and seas. Only 3% is fresh water, more than half of which is locked in ice sheets and glaciers. The rest is groundwater.

Water-bearing rock formations are known as aquifers. Clay and shale are known as aquicludes, which contain sufficient amounts of water, but only a small portion can be transferred.

Unsaturated limestone and uncrushed granite or basalt belong to the category of aquifers. They are impermeable and therefore neither contain nor pass water. Aquitard is a semi-permeable formation and can transport water very slowly. An example of this is clay lenses interspersed with sand.

The concept of hydrology was first correctly stated by Sir Vitruvias.

Interdependence and continuous movement of all phases of water, i.e. liquids, solids and gas, forms the basis of the hydrological cycle. It is a central concept of hydrology.

Condensation, precipitation, interception, evaporation, etc. are different processes involved in the cyclic movement of water.

Inflow = outflow plus or minus the variation in storage. This is known as the water balance equation.

The porosity of saturated materials determines the amount of stored groundwater. The ability to transfer fluids is known as permeability.

The porosity of rock formations is a measure of voids. It is calculated using the equation v/V where ‘v’ is the volume of voids and ‘V’ is the total volume of rock.

According to Mr. Darcy, the velocity of flow in any porous medium is proportional to the hydraulic gradient.

Aquifers serve as groundwater storage reservoirs and groundwater flow pipelines.

Water plays a major role in the transport of chemicals. It has certain unique characteristics. Pure water is colourless, tasteless and odourless. Its unique nature is due to its molecular structure. Its unique nature allows the solubility of many materials in it.

There is an urgent need to monitor and control the increasing human impact on water chemistry through various forms of pollution. Discharge of industrial waste into waters is a major cause for concern.

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