Do I Decrease Water When Using Flow Control In Cement 4 Types of Lubrication Systems

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4 Types of Lubrication Systems

Lubrication systems are designed to lubricate various parts of industrial machinery or equipment to reduce wear or friction issues that can shorten the useful life of the equipment. The oil or grease used to lubricate machinery can work around the clock to ensure that parts run smoothly at all times. There are several types of lubrication systems to suit individual needs.

Here are four of the most common types of lubrication systems:

One advanced line

The single line progressive system has built-in time control and works by pouring oil or grease through the supply line leading to the main distributor which directs the flow of the relevant parts or components. This is an easy-to-operate system that only relies on a single control metering piston, and can easily lubricate up to 150 different points. This system is ideal for medium applications such as printing presses, wind turbines and industrial printers.

Single line oil

The single line filtration system is a very flexible option and makes it possible to measure the setting due to its modular design. The system uses hydraulic pressure to move the oil or grease around the distribution network. This is a useful system for sending variable volumes of oil to different parts of the engine. It is easy to operate and automatically sends the amount of oil through the entire system. A single-line filtration system is the preferred choice for small and medium-sized machines, such as those used in clothing, printing and construction.

Dual line butter

A two-way filtration system is a practical choice for a large system that has a dispersion of oil or grease sent in a controlled volume to suit individual parts of the engine. This system uses hydraulic pressure to distribute the oils, and includes the most efficient distribution metering devices. It is a versatile arrangement that is easy to increase or decrease and is useful in several heavy industries, such as mineral processing, paper production, steel work plants and cement industry. In addition, this is a practical choice for machines located in low temperature environments.

Sing Point directly

The automatic single point system is useful for machines that require a single, precise application of oil to a specific part. This system is ideal for cranes, cranes, pumps, electric motors, or other parts that require regular lubrication.

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Can You Use Small Plastic Flower Container For Indoor Planting Plant Containers – Ideas on the Best Containers For Beautiful Plant Displays

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Plant Containers – Ideas on the Best Containers For Beautiful Plant Displays

Here’s how to create unusual flower containers for your patio, deck, and porch.

You can create plant containers out of things you would otherwise throw away, so this activity has the dual appeal of creating an eye-catching floral display while going green at the same time!

I have found that planting in old ice buckets or flour or sugar bowls or pots and pans or even old boots or children’s toys like wagons and cots creates a stunning effect. I like to put them in the front of the house and see the number of adults and children who smile and comment to their friends as they pass by. The fun is in the search.

Sometimes the plant can be a little heavy and unstable, depending on the variety of the plant, but for the most part there is no problem. In fact, when I first started, I was disappointed to find that the plants lost their vigor in the middle of the flowering season. A gardening friend soon warned me not to fertilize. Container plants will not thrive if you don’t fertilize them. If you find this job too time-consuming, there is an easy way to do it: simply mix slow-release fertilizer pellets into the top layer of potting soil.

You can also create a beautiful layered flow display by planting additional plants in hanging containers or elevating containers to allow drainage on forms and tables. Just make sure you strategize your access to the water for the higher hanging baskets, otherwise you’ll strain your arms as you reach for the water and very likely get wet in the process!

If you don’t have any containers to recycle, any type of clay planter that has drainage holes in the bottom and “saucers” to prevent the soil from washing out will work perfectly; choose a size that fits the area you plan to grow your show flowers in and the number of containers you have. My local garden center sells a 20-inch oval planter that is 6 1/2 inches tall from the bottom of the saucer and about 9 1/2 inches at its widest point. It contains four or five annuals or small herbs or two large ones and takes up 2 gallons of soil. I have had remarkable results with plants grown this way.

Another tip is to arrange the plants in your basket at the garden center before buying. You might see other customers looking at you strangely, but why not? You will easily find out if the combination of leaf color/texture and growth habit and flowers will work together. Remember, if you can’t decide which pot would suit the plant, try and don’t be afraid to try something original. Next year, you can always slip into a more popular style. I find that a wide and tall container can be placed as a contrast, making the larger plants the center of attention rather than the background.

In situations where my houseplants have clearly attracted the attention of some leaf nibblers, I isolate them overnight in a plastic bag with pest tape. This process usually works well for me.

By experimenting, you will learn how to garden intensively in small areas. Movable containers such as pots and tubs are so versatile that your display can look neat and tidy all year round.

In dark areas or near entrances, try using warm colors (reds and oranges). They attract attention and can be seen from afar. When planting in exposed or public areas, heavy concrete tubs have the added benefit of discouraging anyone from “accidentally” walking away with your prized plants or pots. Concrete planters can be left outside over the winter in frost-prone areas without harm, which is good because you probably won’t want to move them. Be careful with clay though, as one hard, hard frost can cause many unglazed types to disintegrate within 3 months.

Wooden containers are also suitable. I don’t recommend wine or whiskey barrels because they are too shallow and fall apart the first time you transplant them. Traditional cottage style wooden planters are some of my favorites. Some garden centers sell faux lead containers and updated granite containers, some with a simple antique rustic look, while others are period sophisticated.

Planting flowers in containers instantly adds color and vibrancy to your yard. They’re great for adding color to a spot in the garden that “needs something” and you can move them around as you entertain in a particular area.

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Dest Way To Cover Bottom Of Shed For Air Flow Guidance on the Usage and Specifying of Secondary Glazing

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Guidance on the Usage and Specifying of Secondary Glazing

This guidance provides useful information on the principles, disadvantages, materials and methods for upgrading the thermal performance of windows with the addition of secondary glazing.

Windows make a major contribution towards the character of historic buildings and every effort ought to be made to retain them. They could also reveal a good deal about the history of a structure; changing architectural taste and style, social hierarchy, building economics, craft skills and industrial advances.

Older windows may well be draughty as eventually they distort as joints become stressed. Although adequate ventilation is essential in older buildings extreme air leakage through windows wastes heat and is miserable for occupants.

Carefully planned and installed secondary glazing allows the original windows to be preserved unchanged, and where necessary repaired, whilst reducing air leaks and conducted heat losses. Consequently there isn’t a damage to historic fabric as well as in most instances the installation is easily reversible.

Recent study has revealed heat losses by conduction and radiation through a window generally speaking can be decreased by over 60% by making use of secondary glazing with a low emissivity (low-E) hard coating facing the exterior. The research has also shown that further savings can be made if the secondary glazing utilizes insulating frames or uses double or vacuum glazed units.

In addition to increasing the thermal performance of windows, secondary glazing can have a number of additional extra benefits including being highly effective at limiting noise transmission.

For listed properties it is important to refer to the Conservation Officer at the local planning authority for guidance ahead of the installation of secondary glazing. Listed Building Authorization may be required in some cases.

What exactly is secondary glazing?

Secondary glazing is nothing new. In the 19th century some buildings were constructed with internal secondary glazing designed as part of the original layout. Often a second double hung sash window or solid panels with counterbalancing weights were fitted in the space below the window. Their function was to cut down the heat loss and provide some measure of sound insulation to the window aperture.

Secondary glazing is a wholly independent window system applied to the room side of pre-existing windows. The original windows remain in place and in their original unaltered form.

Secondary glazing is available as open-able, removable or fixed units. The open-able panels can be either casements or sliding sashes. These types permit access to the external window for cleaning and the opening of both the secondary glazing and external windows for fresh air. New secondary glazing is designed to be detached in warmer months when its thermal extra benefits are not necessary.

Using glazed external protection for windows using either glass or plastic sheet is known as as ‘storm glazing’ rather than just secondary glazing. Doing this can often be used to protect stained glass in churches. Using this type of system it is important to understand the possible circumstances this produces in the airspace between the existing glazing and the extra external glazing where ventilation will be required. Account should also be taken of the environmental conditions inside the structure before designing the installation.

One option is to install storm glazing in the winter months and remove it in the summer months.

Repairing existing window openings

Established hardwood and metal windows can almost always be restored, even when in reasonably poor condition and as a rule at significantly less cost than total replacement. The solid timber used in the past to make windows was of a high quality and very durable.

Lots of Georgian and Victorian windows are still in place today whilst contemporary windows can require replacement after barely 20 years. Reconstructing windows is the best way of keeping the visual character and architectural significance of a building’s elevation and can add to its value.

Before starting any upgrading work such as draught-stripping or the adding of secondary glazing, evaluate what repairs are needed to make the windows fully functional. Windows deteriorate over time so regular renovation, cleaning methods and painting is always a good investment.

For listed buildings, the total replacement of a window is likely to entail Listed Building Consent.

Secondary glazing or double glazing?

Double glazed windows typically have sealed glazing units with 2 panes of glass divided by an air gap (commonly of 12-18 mm) that enhances thermal insulation, particularly if the glass is coated and the air gap is filled with an inert gas. It is an important improvement that has produced sizable energy cost savings and reductions in carbon dioxide emissions, particularly in new buildings. The Building Regulations make double glazing pretty much obligatory in new building.

Often the replacement of current windows using double glazed units can in many situations lead to a change in appearance, particularly the smoothness of new glass and the need for wider hardwood sections and glazing bars.

In historic buildings, there should be a strong preference for renovation rather than replacement as the use of double glazing will inevitably lead to a loss of traditional fabric. Adding secondary glazing would often be the preferred alternative.

The benefits of double glazing over alternative methods of window improvement are often overestimated. Much of the comfort and energy performance benefits of new double glazing come from the reduction of draughts that will result from well-fitted window frames with integral draught-proofing. These extra benefits are also available through repair and draught-proofing of the existing windows, or from fitted secondary glazing. With regular improvements in the efficiency of secondary glazing it may even be possible for the performance of secondary glazed windows to exceed that of new double glazing.

In terms of noise elimination, double glazed units are no better than single glazed units; and can be to some extent inferior for traffic noise. The important principles for noise reduction are that the windows are well fitted and draught-proofed. Secondary glazing, with its much wider gap between the window panes, is a better sound insulator. Wooden shutters and heavy drapes can also make notable improvements to noise insulation.

Secondary glazing or draught-proofing?

Draught-proofing is more often than not the first alternative to give consideration to for improving the energy efficiency of windows in an older building. As windows are often a foremost source of air infiltration draught-proofing using seals is one of the greatest ways of enhancing comfort and limiting energy use, with little or no change to a building’s look at nominal cost.

However, secondary glazing can give you a noticeably higher thermal overall performance than draught-proofing alone. It may also be chosen where installing draught-proofing seals to the windows is especially difficult.

Similarly many metal-framed windows have gaps that are too big to seal.

Windows with leaded lights may allow air infiltration around the lead which can be addressed with the help of secondary glazing.

Dependant on the building’s use, location and the occupants’ comfort requirements other advantages and benefits of secondary glazing, for instance noise reduction, may have a bearing on the design and style solution.

If secondary glazing is the preferred solution then the outer windows are better left without draught-proofing to make sure that there’s an amount of ventilation to the air space separating the outer windows and the secondary glazing to stop the build up of condensation.

Lead Paint

Lead paints can be harmful to health, especially children.

Lead based paints are often found on older buildings. Sometimes these paints have already been over-painted. If there is any uncertainty about the existence of lead paint on windows that are going to be stripped, it must be assumed that lead paint exists and precautions taken accordingly.

The usage of lead paints already has been generally banned as a consequence of the danger to health. That being said, there is an exclusion to the ban which allows them to be used on Grade I and Grade II* listed buildings. On those structures the traditional appearance of the lead paint, together with its longevity and its fungicidal and insecticidal properties, mean that it is quite often still used. It should only be applied by qualified decorators using proper protective equipment, and it is not recommended for use where it may be in the reach of children.

The benefits of secondary glazing

Although the main purpose of secondary glazing units in older buildings is to improve the thermal capability of windows by draught-proofing as well as reducing the conduction of heat through glass, secondary glazing can provide a number of other benefits.

Thermal Benefits

Heat loss from a room via a window in the heating months are complex as three major elements are in play:

*by convection and conduction, from the warmer room air to the colder of the glass and the frame

*by the cold surface of the window soaking up infra-red radiation from the room

*by uncontrolled air leakage, which can also bring in cold air from the external surfaces or take warm air out from the inside; often called air infiltration, this can occur even when the window is closed.

Heat loss through the glass and frames

It doesn’t matter if it leaves the room by convection, conduction or radiation, the lost heat all goes through the glass and also the frame as conduction. The glass is essentially the most conductive area of the window but heat is typically lost across the frame although at a lesser rate.

Single glazing is a poor energy insulator and readily conducts heat. A typical 4mm thick glass has a archetypal U-value of 5.4W/m2K. The thermal loss through a single glazed window will depend on the overall area of glass, the conductance of the frame material and the quality of the installation of the frame and double glazing materials. A typical value of a hardwood framed single glazed window is 4.8W/m2K.

For thermal performance, the optimum airspace between panes is 16 – 20mm. A better air space lets convection currents to develop within the void and more heat to be shed. The positioning of the secondary unit is typically determined by the window reveal and can often only be fitted at a distance of about 100mm from the prime glazing. Having said that, a significant proportion of the thermal benefit of secondary glazing comes from decoupling the frame from the prime wooden window frame and this can reduce the U-value to approximately 2.5W/m2K.

The use of low emissivity glass for the secondary glazing can further improve the thermal efficiency to less than 2.0/m2K. To maintain this figure it is important to keep the finish clean – the standard is ‘visually’ clean.

Heat loss through air leakage

Heat losses from a typical conventional window are primarily through breaks around the window. With larger windows the proportion of heat shed by conduction through the glass tends to be larger. Since draughts, caused by convection and air infiltration make people feel less warm, the people in the room may turn up the heating, and also operate it for longer.

Bespoke secondary windows, with efficient perimeter sealing and brush or compression seals on the opening panels, generate an effective seal over the whole of the mainframe of the main window and can substantially moderate excessive draughts.

Prior to embarking on a process of draught-proofing, think about a fan pressurisation analysis to find out the particular sources of air penetration and determine which windows require attention as they can contrast substantially in the amount of draughts they let in.

Quantifying Draughtiness

The draughtiness of a building will depend upon the amount of air that can pass through its exterior envelope – walls, floor and roof covering. This is alluded to as the air permeability. The industry standard is to articulate the permeability of a wall, roof, or complete structure envelope accepting a pressure difference of 50 Pascals across the wall. The permeability is then measured as the amount of air (in cubic metres) that will pass in an hour through a square metre of wall (or roof, or floor) and expressed as m³/h/m² (m³/hm² or m/h) at a pressure difference of 50 Pascals (50 Pa).

While leaks in the structure is what creates draughtiness and ventilation, what is more important for the structure and its occupants is the speed at which air proceeds through the structure. This is most simply measured as the number of times that the air in the building alters each hour (shown as ac/h). This will depend upon the pressure difference between the outside and the inside of the building, and again the industry norm is to assume a pressure difference of 50 Pa.

The relationship within these two measures is given by the following formulation:

Air changes per hour = Permeability x external surface area of building x Interior volume of structure

The conversion from air changes per hour at 50 Pa to air changes per hours under normal conditions (around 4 Pa) is too elaborate to explain now. In one building a real 0.8 ac/r was equivalent to 14 ac/h (50Pa).

Noise Insulation

Windows are one of the most susceptible parts of a building to noise transmission due to their fairly lightweight construction. Depending on the number of openings and the quality of the seals between the openings, a single glazed window with no seals may only achieve a noise reduction of 18 – 25dBA. When closed, sealed double glazed units perform barely better than single glazing because the 2 panes of glass are rigidly connected with a nominal cavity so the 2 panes resonate as one.

A secondary window with an air space of 10cm or more de-couples the movement of the two panes of glass and reduces the resonance between the two. Sound insulation of up to 45dBA can typically be obtained.

Elevated levels of sound insulation are attained as the gap grows particularly if the window reveals happen to be lined with an acoustic material, although nominal enhancements happen with cavities over 200mm. The use of thicker or acoustic laminate glass within the secondary window also improves the acoustic capabilities of the installation.

Protection from UV light

Ultra Violet (UV) light from the sun might cause extensive damage to paintings, fabrics, furnishing and other objects. The use of a film, either in laminated glass in the secondary glazing unit or put on as a film to the primary window, will absorb UV light and reduce this risk of damage.

Solar gain

Windows can admit large amounts of solar energy leading to overheating. Secondary glazing can make this more serious if they minimize summer time venting. Though, mid-pane blinds, glare coatings and summer ventilation of the air space can be used to help make the room less hot.

Some secondary glazing systems can be taken down in the summer months.

Condensation

All air includes some water vapour, but warm air can hold more vapour than cold air. As soon as warm, moistened air is cooled it will reach a temperature at which it cannot hold all the vapour, and the water will condense out. This temperature is called the dew point.

Warm moist air passing over a cold surface may be cooled locally below the dew point in which case moisture build-up or condensation will take place. This outcome causes the familiar condensation on the inside of cold windows. Condensation on the external window can arise if the secondary system is opened up for ventilation in cold weather especially where rooms are somewhat humid.

These condensation hazards will be minimised where the secondary glazing is either:

*able to be kept closed in cold weather, because there are alternative means of ventilation- older properties commonly have enough ventilation from other parts

*found where the ordinary direction of air flow is from outside to inside, for example on the windward side of a structure, on the lower floors or where a designated natural or mechanical extraction product helps to ensure inward airflow

*fitted with devices which avoid reverse air flow in unwanted conditions

*where the primary and secondary assemblies incorporate some option means of ventilating between the outside and the room interior but bypassing the cavity between the prime and secondary glazing

Historic buildings security

A secondary window offers an extra barrier to entry and therefore can present improved security. This can be particularly suitable when the use of an historic building is being modified and an advanced degree of safety and security is required. The secondary glazing can provide that additional security whilst preserving the existing windows.

Secondary glazing and the Building Regulations

There aren’t specific requirements for secondary glazing for existing buildings within the Building Regulations. The Part L Approved Documents set U-value standards for windows but these will only include existing buildings:

*if the windows are past repair and there isn’t alternative but to replace them

or

* if the building is undergoing a ‘change of use’

The Part L Approved Documents standard for windows is 2.2/m2K. This performance figure can be achieved when secondary glazing with low E glass is used in combination with the primary window. Hence secondary glazing offers the opportunity to improve the energy efficiency of an older building whilst preserving its historic appearance and value.

Adding secondary glazing to the prime windows can be useful in assisting a concession to be arrived at when trying to upgrade the thermal performance of a significant structure.

Secondary glazing systems – materials

When selecting secondary glazing units for a building it is important to use a system in keeping with the design and materials of the space. There are several proprietary secondary glazing systems available which provide setups that are configured to suit the particular circumstances of the structure.

Proprietary systems normally have coated aluminium frames. This allows the design of slim-line systems that can fit within the depth of the staff bead of a typical sash window so shutters and window sills can be saved.

Systems with more significant framing sections are stronger and can permit seals, fixings and counterbalancing. The systems may use an aluminium outer frame fitted to a soft wood ground or seasoned timber surrounds depending on the design and fixing elements. The supplier of these systems provide, manufacture and installation services.

Alternatively a bespoke system can be manufactured composed of a sub-frame, commonly of solid wood, into which opening casements or moving sashes are fixed. Individual glazed windows can be hinged so that they fold up like shutters or operate similar to sash windows.

The importance of traditional ‘breathing’ performance

Most traditional properties are made of porous materials which do not incorporate the obstructions to outside moisture (cavities, rain-screens, damp-proof courses, vapour barriers and membranes) which are standard in modern building.

As a result, the porous fabric in early houses tends to soak up more moisture, which is then released by internal and external evaporation. When traditional buildings are working as they were designed to, the evaporation will keep dampness levels in the building fabric below the stages at which decay can start to develop. This is often referred to as a ‘breathing’ building.

If appropriately preserved a ‘breathing’ structure has definite advantages over a modern watertight building. Porous materials such as lime and/or earth based mortars, renders, plasters and limewash act as a shield for environmental dampness, absorbing it from the air when humidity is high, and releasing it when the air is dry. Present day building relies on mechanised eradication to remove water vapour formed by the actions of individuals.

As old-fashioned buildings need to ‘breathe’ the use of vapour barriers and many substances frequently found in modern buildings must be avoided when making renovations to improve energy efficiency, as these materials can trap and store moisture and create problems for the building.

The use any modern day substances need to be based upon an informed evaluation where the significance of their inclusion and the risk of problems are fully recognized. It is also important that structures are well looked after, or else improvements made in energy efficiency will be negated by the problems associated with water ingress and/or increased draughts.

Sliding systems

Horizontal sliding systems comprise two or more panels sliding on glide pads or wheels for larger windows, with the panels sliding within the frame. Most panels can be easily taken out by lifting into the head frame and swinging them out.

On vertical sliding systems, the two panels slide within the frame. Some operate on spring balances which fully support the weight of the sash and those that do not can be difficult to operate and are only suitable for extremely small windows. For sash windows they usually have the top sash innermost, to improve operability and allow the latch on the prime sash to be got to more easily. Tilt-in up and down sliding systems allow the sashes to hinge inwards for cleaning. Restrictor stays and braking systems to prevent sliding in the open position can be fitted.

These variations are suitable where conventional ventilation is required.

Hinged systems

Hinged casements are available as single or double leaf with the frame measurements dependent on the window size. Casements are often fitted with restrictor stays.

This type of system is frequently used where the whole window is to be covered to avoid any sightlines on the secondary product. These work well for larger panes, where high compression seals are required to optimise sound insulation or to reduce air flow, or where full access is required for cleaning/repair or to provide a means of egress.

In situations with security demands, multi-point locking can be used.

These designs are suitable where regular ventilation is necessary. Since the sash projects into the room when opened for ventilation this may create a safety hazard. A restrictor can be fitted to hold the window open at a pre-specified minimum.

Lift outs

A lightweight frame with the panel lifted from the bottom to remove. These are best used for windows that are fixed or seldom opened and where availability is only occasional necessary for cleaning. They are also useful for windows of unusual configurations.

Where it is suggested to remove secondary glazing it is advisable to have dedicated storage space available.

Removable

A lightweight and easy to remove system is a magnetic secondary glazing system. Multi-polarised magnetic strips fitted to UV stable clear cast acrylic combine with reverse magnetic strips on the edge of the window frame to hold the panel in place.

Fixed

Permanent panels are useful where no access is required or in combination with other opening panels. Careful consideration needs to be given to how to access the glass and the cavity space to clean and maintain.

With wholly fixed panels to avoid the risk of condensation within the cavity can be lessened by providing vents in the secondary glazing unit.

Shaped

There are limitations but it is possible to shape all designs of secondary glazed units to the profile and style of the external window.

Installing secondary glazing

Secondary glazing can have negligible visual outcome if carefully planned. The layout should seek to be as judicious as possible with undersized frames concealed from view from the outside and unassuming from within.

There are numerous different ways of installing secondary glazing to a window opening. Take into consideration the styles and specifications as early as possible in the scheme to ensure a successful final result.

A good way to start is to contact one of the specialist companies who offer help and advice on the planned installation.

Whilst the framing material may be lightweight glass is deceptively heavy – 10Kg/m² for 4mm thick panes and 15Kg/m² for 6mm. Manufacturers will provide recommendations for size and weight restrictions for the safe usage of the planned secondary glazing unit.

In the design progression the following is an indication of the type of factors to be considered with key issues being the minimisation of damage and ease of use. The purpose of the installation will dictate the fixing location and type of glass chosen.

EXISTING WINDOW DESIGN

The design of the original window can be used to decide the style of the secondary glazing to be installed. The dimensions of the primary window are fixed but the secondary glazing can be designed into manageable sized units.

PHYSICAL CONSTRAINTS

Secondary windows are typically situated immediately inside the established sashes or at a suitable location within the depth of the window reveal. An assessment of the existing window opening by the consultant company will identify the limitations, for example whether there is satisfactory depth in the reveal to locate the secondary glazing.

SHUTTERS

Where shutters or other joinery are present, careful consideration will be required.

Sometimes secondary glazing can be situated between the primary window and the shutters so that the wooden shutters still operate. If the wooden shutters are housed within the window reveal it may be possible to install secondary glazing on the room side of the window shutters.

If the secondary glazing cannot be inserted without making the shutters inoperable the shutters could be fixed closed but not modified so that they can be brought back into use at a later date.

VISUAL IMPACT

Secondary glazing can be visually intrusive outwardly and inside if badly designed. To minimise the visual effect of secondary windows externally, try to make sure the secondary glazing is not smaller than the glazed area of the existing window. Try to position any divisions in the glazing behind the window meeting rails or glazing bars. The flat reflections of modern glass within secondary glazing can be reduced by using anti-reflective glass.

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Describe The Purpose Of Flow Sheets In A Medical Environment Choosing the Right EMR Software

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Choosing the Right EMR Software

Electronic Medical Records (EMR) is a computer-based system for accessing, automating, and sharing medical information. EMR is designed to increase the efficiency of patient storage and sharing of valuable medical information between different medical practitioners.

The right EMR software system will work in a patient-patient-friendly manner, be easy to use and be easily accessible by any number of hospitals, practices, clinics, and specialists. It will contain the information the system needs from your blood pressure and weight to your address, phone number, and the name of your insurance provider. Finally, to eliminate the fear that patient records may be publicly accessible on Google, security and privacy considerations are important.

Because EMR implementation is such a huge undertaking, many companies have jumped on the bandwagon as providers – but not all are equal. However, there are a few questions you should ask when choosing your EMR partner.

1. Do you have a solid partner for long-term work, support and service?

Having a solid partner will allow your investment to grow by using them as a mentor as your practice evolves with new needs.

2. Does the solution have a solid foundation and technology that is stable, scalable, and flexible?

In a changing healthcare environment, a flexible and standard technology base – such as Microsoft SQL – allows for adaptation and change. As new measures or standards are added to various aspects of the patient record, a solidly established EMR can quickly adapt to these needs.

3. Is the CCHIT solution compatible today and in the future?

CCHIT is quickly becoming the standard for system interoperability. As the healthcare industry expands patient records from practice or provider records, the ability to communicate with other systems while maintaining patient privacy will be critical.

4. Does the system allow you to manage your practice records using your own process?

Each practice, provider and specialist differs in how they practice medicine and chart patient information. Since many EMR solutions focus on primary care, they are not equipped to meet the needs of specialties such as cardiology, orthopedics, or urology – to name a few. A solution with specific content for specific specialties means higher levels of documentation, faster meetings, and better coding.

5. Does the solution provide a solid business case that meets your goals and provides solid ROI for years to come?

There is a difference between a system that improves a traditional document and one that will show a tangible return on investment and provide a plan to achieve its goals. When considering an EMR system, a practice should base their choice on total cost of ownership – not simply the price tag.

Electronic Health Records are not limited by the limitations of paper. The result of the EMR implementation will be a sea change when the health industry fully participates, dealing with the many problems of paper with the power of the computer.

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Describe The Flow Of Economic Activity In A Market Economy Globalization: An Opportunity for Higher Education?

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Globalization: An Opportunity for Higher Education?

Globalization is a hot topic in the media and business these days. The Levin Institute of the State University of New York defines globalization as “the process of interaction and integration of people, companies, and governments of different nations, a process driven by international trade and investment and aided by information technology.” [1]. The Internet was one of the innovations in information technology that ushered in a new era of international communication and commerce. It has enabled call centers in India, for example, to make customer service calls from anywhere in the world at competitive rates. Globalization has redefined entire industries, and the web has led to revolutions in many cases.

Now consider what the Internet has done for higher education. Today, it is possible for someone to complete an entire degree program from practically anywhere on the planet as long as there is access to a computer and internet connection. Whether you’re a busy professional or a stay-at-home mom, there’s no reason you can’t get a solid college education. This isn’t surprising unless you’ve lived in technological isolation. Why does this warrant another look? The cost of education is growing at an unsustainable pace. This inflationary pressure has given rise to many reasons for pause and reflection, leading some to drop out of college altogether. This is particularly problematic for a knowledge economy that depends on a highly educated workforce.

According to the College Board, in the United States for the 2011-12 academic year, the average state tuition fee for a four-year public university is $8,244 USD, or a 7.0% increase over the previous year. Based on this estimate, assuming one graduate in 4 years, the total cost of college education would be $32,976 USD (or $41,220 USD over 5 years). Tuition has grown an average of 5.6% per year more than general inflation in the United States over the past decade and shows no signs of slowing down. [2]. The global recession has forced governments everywhere to implement austerity measures to compensate for lost tax revenue; Higher education has fallen victim to these cuts. It happens more, even in Europe where admission is based on merit and requires the student to pay little, if any, fees. The UK has recently seen the introduction of premiums. The costs of maintaining these institutions of higher education are passed on to students in the form of higher education and student loans, which will stifle future economic growth. Traditionally, brick and mortar institutions have been limited to classroom space to ensure access to the best and the best, access standards have been enforced. But stricter access requirements translate into reduced access. In contrast, the Internet has changed this dynamic enabling almost unlimited access and the possibility of exploiting economies of scale.

Let’s take a look at a few online programs offered by institutions around the world and their estimated cost in US dollars (USD) It should not be meant to be a complete list or even a comparison of degree programs. Its purpose is to get one thinking about the possibility of online programs in an international rather than a regional context.

Western States University (USA)

  • Bachelor of Science in Information Technology – Estimated Total Cost: $18,210 USD ($3,035 USD per term for 6 terms)
  • Bachelor of Science in Nursing – Estimated Total Cost: $25,500 USD ($4,250 USD per term for 6 terms)

Heriot-Watt University (Edinburgh Business School) (Scotland, United Kingdom)

  • Master of Business Administration (General) – 9 Courses – Estimated Total Cost: $13,005 USD ($1,445 USD x 9 Courses)
  • Master of Business Administration (specializing in Marketing, Human Resources, Strategic Planning or Finance) – 11 Courses – Estimated Total Cost: $15,895 USD ($1,445 USD x 11 courses)

Central Queensland University (Australia)

  • Bachelor of Accounting – Estimated Total Cost: $10,275 USD

University of South Africa (UNISA) (South Africa)

  • International Marketing Certificate – Approximate Total Cost: $1,100 USD
  • Bachelor of Commerce (BCom) in Financial Management – Estimated Total Cost: $10,000 USD

As you can see from this short list, there is a variety of donations available in all hemispheres. If you simply start searching, you will surely find many reputable and affordable colleges and universities all available online.

Ignoring national boundaries for the sake of higher education may not be the answer to all the ills of the international higher education system. A multisite curriculum cannot be easily transferred to an online program; especially for subjects that require time in laboratories such as Chemistry or Medicine. There is such a thing as face-to-face contact in the classroom, too. The value of talking to friends is immeasurable. However, the possibility of offering online academic programs has not yet been fully realized. As learning management systems and online collaboration methods evolve, the ability to interact with peers in real time will become more popular, making the world our classroom. If we think and act globally, shouldn’t we also learn from the world?

When faced with budget cuts, colleges and universities have no choice but to cut costs or raise new revenue. The need for competition makes replacing (or augmenting) income a better option. Some universities have succeeded in commercializing their research by licensing intellectual property, publishing it and developing curricula for executive education programs. As many brick and mortar institutions have brought their curriculum online, it has not resulted in reduced tuition because the delivery system remains strong and the revenue model has not changed to focus on profit. The Universities of the Western Provinces, the University of South Africa and Heriot-Watt University all have different curriculum delivery methods and income models that merit further study.

Heriot-Watt University, for example, offers some of its courses in an asynchronous learning model that significantly reduces labor costs. Their distance learning program at Edinburgh Business School and the satellite campus in Dubai (another center is planned in Malaysia) generate revenues that go back to the home campus in Edinburgh. Capital improvements in infrastructure (new student housing, classroom space, curriculum placement and translation, etc.) and reinvestment in the community make students the beneficiaries of this benefit. Their distance learning system has the potential to reach hundreds of thousands, maybe even millions, of students around the world. This scale takes advantage of economies of scale which enhances the profitability of the institution. At the same time, it offers wide access, flexibility and teaching at very competitive rates. [3]

If it is assumed that consumers are ready to participate in this global education market, the problem then becomes the criteria for evaluating the programs of colleges and universities on an international level. The quality of the materials, accreditation, popular students, peer interaction and, most importantly, the integrity of the assessment are all factors that must be considered. The quality of the material can be assessed by ensuring that the authors are recognized experts in their field. Accreditation by a government agency and/or an internationally recognized accreditation body is important to ensure continuity and sustainability. For example, Heriot-Watt University is accredited by a Royal Charter issued by the British government, and the University of the Western Region is regionally accredited by the North West Commission on Colleges and Universities, an accredited accrediting body in US Department of Education. Distinguished graduates can also be an indicator of the quality and rigor of an international university. Nobel laureates Nelson Mandela and Desmond Tutu are both graduates of the University of South Africa. Being able to interact with your peers can be a lifesaver when it comes to learning things you don’t know. This is one of the disadvantages of distance learning, but if it is possible to communicate with colleagues, then it is possible to get the answers you need. Perhaps one of the most important considerations is the integrity of the assessment. It should never be possible to refer to notes or get help during the investigation, or this should be an immediate cause for concern. The integrity of the testing centers is very important to the accuracy of the certificate. If the assessment is administered without control, it is not possible to ensure that one has managed the materials well. Heriot-Watt University and University of South Africa exams are held at exam centers around the world. These are often the same testing facilities that administer the GMAT, GRE and other standardized entrance exams that require a high level of security.

The foundation of higher education is to compete internally and externally to create an efficient market. Education cannot continue to grow at this rate without serious economic consequences in the future. Globalization represents an opportunity for higher education to expand into new markets and generate new revenue; enabling it to weather bad budgets, stabilize education costs and stimulate reinvestment in the environment. It also represents an opportunity to expand access to students and reduce the burden of student debt that creates cash flow to stimulate economic activity. A side benefit will be increased awareness and appreciation of international issues.

References

[1] Levin Institute, Globalization Defined: http://www.globalization101.org/what-is-globalization/

[2] College Board, US 2011-12 college cost trends

[3] The story of Heriot-Watt University’s Edinburgh Business School as told by Dr. Keith Lumsden: http://vimeo.com/12020689

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Describe The Flow Of Blood Through The Heart And Vessels Viagra is Good for the Heart

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Viagra is Good for the Heart

Viagra (Sildenafil citrate), which millions of men take for erectile dysfunction (ED), reduces the effects of hormonal stress on the heart by half, according to a study published online in the journal Circulation.

Viagra causes blood vessels in the penis to dilate, which helps maintain an erection. Recent research has also indicated a potential benefit in the treatment of pulmonary hypertension. Before the latest results from a group of Johns Hopkins researchers, it was thought to have little effect on the heart.

Viagra, or sildenafil, slows down the heart rate and causes chemical stress, according to the study’s senior author and cardiologist David Kass, MD, a professor at the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine and the Heart Institute. It then reduces both the excess amount of blood and the force used to pump it around the body.

“Sildenafil effectively puts a ‘brake’ on the heart’s chemical stimulation,” Kass said.

It prevents and reverses the effects of High BP

These results are believed to be the first human confirmation that Viagra has a direct effect on the heart. In previous research, Kass and his team observed a similar effect in mice; Sildenafil blocked the short-term effects of hormonal stress on the heart.

Studies related to the group show that sildenafil also prevents and reverses the long-term effects of chronic high blood pressure on the heart.

Sildenafil reversed the negative effects of heart muscle weakness and enlargement – a condition known as hypertrophy – in mouse experiments conducted by Kass and his team earlier this year. They reported their findings in the journal Nature Medicine.

“But we don’t have definitive evidence about whether or how this treatment might work in the human heart,” Kass said. “The latest research provides strong evidence that this drug actually has an important effect on the heart.”

The increase in heart rate is slowed

Thirty-five healthy men and women, with an average age of 30 and no previous symptoms of coronary artery disease, participated in the six-month study at Johns Hopkins. Within three hours, each participant received two separate injections of dobutamine (5 micrograms per kilogram over five minutes), a synthetic, adrenaline-like chemical that increases heart rate and pumping power.

Between injections, study participants were randomly assigned to a group treated with sildenafil (100 milligrams orally) or a group given a sugar pill placebo. All participants were then given a second injection of dobutamine to see the effect of sildenafil or placebo on the heart.

Cardiac function measurements were performed before and after each injection. These included blood pressure readings, electrocardiograms and echocardiograms. Blood tests confirmed equal levels of sildenafil and other enzymes.

Each injection of dobutamine stimulated the work of the heart, increasing the heart rate and the strength of each heart beat used to pump blood throughout the body, the results showed.

“This stimulation is similar to the way the nervous system normally increases heart function when stimulated by emotional stress or exercise, or diseases such as heart failure,” Kass said.

After the first injection of dobutamine, heart pain intensity increased by 150 percent in both groups. In the placebo group, this increase was repeated after the second injection. However, in the group treated with sildenafil, the increased heart rate decreased by 50 percent, resulting in a small increase in blood flow and blood pressure caused by the heart responding to chemical stimulation.

Between injections, cardiac function was not altered in the sildenafil group, indicating the absence of adverse effects on the resting human heart.

Inhibition of PDE5A Action

“Knowing more about the effect of sildenafil on heart function will allow for a safe evaluation of its use in the treatment of heart problems,” said Kass.

“Our results set the stage for further studies on the immediate and long-term effects of sildenafil on the heart and its ability to modulate other neurohormonal stimuli and stress, including adrenaline and hypertension,” he added.

While the exact biological actions of sildenafil on the heart are not fully understood, the drug is known to work by inhibiting the action of an enzyme, known as phosphodiesterase 5 (PDE5A), Kass explained. These enzymes are involved in the breakdown of an important molecule, the GMP cycle, which helps to control stress and limit the growth of the heart.

PDE5A is also the biological pathway that sildenafil blocks in the penis to prevent blood vessel relaxation and thus maintain an erection.

Copyright 2005 Daily News Central

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Describe The Differences And Similarities Between Earth Flows And Mudflows Persecution Today, the Kachin of Myanmar

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Persecution Today, the Kachin of Myanmar

The People of Kachin State

Those who are fighters in the trenches, literally or otherwise, will find my report on Kachin State anywhere from mildly to wildly inaccurate and unrepresentative of the real situation there. I have never been to Kachin State, or Myanmar, or any of the surrounding countries of Southeast Asia. I have never witnessed the atrocities of the fighting men of Burma (Myanmar today). I have never experienced anything like the life-style of the mountain people struggling for their existence as a people there. I am simply an observer from afar, and apologize up front for my dependence on meager and probably inadequate sources of information.

I know also that there are the theological types who will be critical of the whole premise of persecution in Kachin because, as will be pointed out, much of what happens in Northeast Burma is political and has seemingly nothing to do with the church. They will suggest that many of the people dying there were Christians in name only.

I imagine some of that is true. I also imagine your own family has people like that, and your church and your community. But when the blood begins to spatter on the sidewalks of our towns here, it will be difficult for us to ignore the reality of the trauma that is occurring. And even if 9 out 10 of the people falling are not your spiritual brothers, I am certain you will not be able to look on the scene without terror filling your heart, as you rush to find a way to stop the bloodbath, and to save your family and your neighbors, the rest of them.

I ask that you view Kachin State through that lens, the lens of neighbor-loving, massacre-avoidance, personal tragedy, as though it were your own person affected, and allow God to be the judge of who knew Him and who didn’t. Kachin State is a horrific tragedy and needs Christian concern and it needs it today, now.

I have found in this research a mystery, a lot of history, and an opportunity for God’s people to react.

I. The Mystery.

There are probably many unsolved mysteries about the Kachin. But the one that troubles me the most at this writing, is, why am I just now hearing about the Kachin people? Where have I been all this time when their history was developing? I have worked with the persecuted in one way or another for nearly 30 years. These are largely a Christian people. Why didn’t I know about them?

And why has the media by and large ignored the slaughter here and in places like Nigeria, Kenya, the Philippines? Something to do with American interests not being served by helping folks that live up in the hills of a foreign country? No oil wells? No serious political ties?

Have you heard of these people? Let me share with you the little bit of information I was able to glean from the ever-present internet.

II. Some History.

A. of the Kachin people.

The Kachin people go by quite a few different names. They are called Jingpho, Singpho, Jinghpaw, and more. They live in at least 3 border nations, mainly in northeastern Burma, but also in neighboring China and India. My focus will be on those who live in Burma, or Myanmar, the modern name of that country. One million Kachin live there, as opposed to only 150,000 in China.

Who are they? The various tribal groups that make up the Kachin people do have some clear characteristics: “fierce independence, disciplined fighting skills, complex clan inter-relations, embrace of Christianity, craftsmanship, herbal healing, and jungle survival skills.” (Wikipedia)

But not all who live in Kachin State (northeastern-most state of Burma) are Kachin. The territory is home also to Thai and Lao natives, Lisus, Rawangs, Nagas, and the largest ethnic group in Burma, the Burmans. Though some want to call all of these residents of the state, “Kachin”, the Kachin tribe itself does not favor such a designation. That is where “Jinghpaw” comes into play. “Jingphaw Wunpawng” means all the residents of the state, whereas Jingphaw used alone refers only to ethnic Kachins.

Confused yet? There’s more. In Kachin State people have found 2 ways to categorize the various groups. In one form, you take all the groups that have overlapping territories and similar skills, and you call them a single people. In another form, you go by language only. Very complex. And yet the Jingpo know who they are regardless of the efforts of outsiders to tell them.

Thing is, though, most of the tribes come from the same basic background, despite all the posturing and self-identifying of the groups. We’ll leave it at that. Generally speaking, there’s this group of people who dwell in Kachin State with similar language, ways, and even religion. We’ll call them Kachins for the rest of this report.

The Kachin people can be traced back for many hundreds of years. They lived on the Tibetan plateau, perhaps in Mongolia before that, and gradually worked their way south to their present location, China’s province of Yunnan, and Burma.

The Burmese government in time ceded to a number of people, including the Kachin, full autonomy in a special agreement in 1947. The State of Kachin was formed in 1948.

When Burma became independent of Great Britain, tribal conflicts of ancient nature surfaced. One serious problem was the Burman government and its attitude toward the Kachin people. When Burma declared Buddhism to be the national religion of that nation in 1961, an uprising of the Kachins which had already been in progress, escalated.

The Kachin Independence Organization with its military arm formed alliances with other independence groups through the years, but gradually the new government of Burma with its superior army was able to bring the KIO to a ceasefire. This was 1994.

While the KIA laid down its weapons, the Burmese Army continued to strengthen itself, and to this day is causing untold pain and suffering to the residents of the Kachin State. Civil War continues on and off. Serious fighting erupted in 2011 and continued into the next year. 5,580 internally displaced persons arrived at Burmese controlled camps that year. Some people leave the country altogether, never to return. But some refugees, as is the case with the refugee North Koreans, are forced by the Chinese government to go back to their homes, even though the fighting continues.

As of October, 2012, 100,000 “IDP’s” were taking shelter in various camps across the State. Perhaps 1,000 died in the conflict.

China enters this sordid picture in other ways, one by deforesting portions of Kachin territory for its own purposes and people. Poverty has overcome the state, and many women and children are being forced into the sex trade of Thailand and other places. Migration of the ethnic Kachins to Thailand and Malaysia is yet another step in the undoing of this once populous territory. But not the final step. These nations often send the Kachins on to a third home in the West, in a process that can take 5-7 years.

It is not a happy thing to be a Kachin in these days.

B. A description of the Kachin State.

The Kachin economy is largely agricultural. Rice, teak, sugar cane.

But there is also mineral production: gold and jade. Unfortunately the Myanmar government cares little about the deteriorating environment in Kachin as it pluders the area to mine these resources. Erosion, flooding, and mudslides are common. Houses are destroyed each year.

Then there is China, again. One project with that nation, a 1,055 megawatt hydroelectric power plant, displaced 15,000 Kachin people. There is a systematic running over of these residents as though their worth is next to nothing. There has been little or no development in infrastructure, health care, and other basic necessities by this same government that is busy grabbing minerals from the land.

Burmese education is centered on the memorization of facts, and is located mainly in a handful of major cities. In Kachin State, with 1, 700,000 people, there are 41 high schools, 86 middle, and 1183 primary, with only 24,000 students. By comparison, in Chicago Public School system alone, there are 96 high schools. And that is one of many systems in the Chicagoland region.

Burma’s health system nationwide is poor, but outside the main towns as in Kachin State, it is extremely poor. 1530 beds in 43 hospitals serve the population noted above (2002-2003). The government spends only 2 or 3 percent of the GDP on health care. This stat is among the lowest in the world. (215 Hospitals serve Chicago.)

Many traditions and ways have developed among the Kachins.

· Political authority was based on chieftains supported by their immediate families.

· though originally hunters, the Kachins have become strongly agricultural

· Kachin dwellings are 2 stories, and are built out of wood and bamboo. First floor is storage, 2nd floor for living.

· Clothing for women is wool skirts in bright colors. Men often wear turbans.

· Animism was the traditional religion, but we shall see how that particular tradition changed radically.

C. The salvation story of Kachin

The famous Adoniram Judson was not the first missionary to Burma, by several years. But he was certainly the first significant one. Two others had come and gone when Judson came in the first part of the 19th century. Judson stayed. People were converted. the Bible was translated.

But though Judson and later one Eugenio Kincaid met and talked with the Kachins of Burma during this time, no serious work was started there for at least 40 years. Several missionaries went to the far north, and one, Josiah Cushing, brought with him two tribesmen from the south of Burma, from the Karen people, who stayed the better part of a year evangelizing Kachins, then were replaced by others from the same tribe.

Eventually Albert Lyon of America, with his wife, was assigned to this territory and began an established work. But only began. Within a week he had caught a fever, and within a month he had passed away into eternity.

Still the Karen evangelists came, and Cushing’s replacement, James Freiday, supervised them.

It was left to a resident of Illinois, William Roberts, along with Karen workers Maw Keh and Shwe Gyaw, to answer the call and build extensively on the work that had already begun. But more tragedy struck soon, as his wife died within 18 months. Though William had to return for a while to the States, he would return and pioneer the Kachin work for 40 years.

It was rough going for the Gospel in the early years. Freiday and the Karens continued to assist, in the face of attacks, robberies, fire, sickness. And in the beginnings, not one single inquirer, much less an active Christian convert.

Roberts was joined in 1881 with another appointed couple, the Kronkhites, and a new wife, a teacher in the Kemmendine School.

Finally in 1882, seven converts received baptism and the church was formed among the animist Kachin people. Add to the seven the four missionaries and four Karen evangelists, and a church of 15 emerges in the hills of Northern Burma.

Then it began to happen more rapidly. More baptisms, establishment of schools, translation of Scriptures, preparation of a hymnal, training of leaders, opening of new mission stations.

Ola Hanson is credited with being the scholar who brought the Word of God to the people in their own language. He was not encouraged much by the people or even the King of Burma, who even then despised the Kachin people, comparing them to dogs.

Nevertheless he persisted, motivated in part by mythology that was pervasive in those hills. The people had passed down myths for generations. Some of the myths seem to have been generated by truths long ago experienced. There was a creation myth, a resurrection myth, a flood myth. And then there was the “missing book” myth. The Kachins believed and taught that God gave every race a book. But the Kachins, hungry one night, ate their book. So much for the revelation to the Kachins.

The Karen tribe, though, had a prophecy saying that one day a foreigner would bring another copy of the book back to them!

It was an arduous complex task, but Mr. Hanson eventually fulfilled that prophecy! In 1911 the New Testament was completed. In 1926, the Old. His words:

“It is with heartfelt gratitude that I lay this work at the feet of my Master. I am conscious of the defects of my work. I have tried to master Kachin, and make a translation intelligible to all. Pray with us, that our Divine Master may bless this work to the salvation of the whole Kachin race, while we are still at work here.”

More missionaries, more stations, more outreaches to Kachins and others wherever the doors opened. The church grows. By 1909, 150 Christians, 8 of whom became pastors.

Fast forward to World War II. All missionaries must go. Japanese invade. Church members scatter. Some apostatize, going back to animism. Some are persecuted. But new converts come, too. The church is able to be the church throughout the occupation.

In 1948, British rule of Burma ends. That rule had included two separate administrations for this multicultural land. One was considered “Burma Proper” and included the Burman people. The other was called the “Excluded (or frontier) Areas”, simply the numerous ethnic minorities that needed separate consideration.

When the British leave, the two administrations become one. For a short time non-Burmans would be allowed to secede from Burma and were granted full autonomy. The leaders of this interim regime were soon assassinated. The next leader, nationalist U Nu, in 1948 officially ignored that pluralistic agreement, and informed all minorities that they were to be a part of Burma, period.

In 1961, to make things worse for Kachins in particular, Buddhism was officially made the state religion. Here then was created the dilemma. Kachins by and large were not Buddhist nor did they desire to become Buddhist. Fear of losing their freedom has caused them through the years to take a separate path from the rest of the nation. Most of the other ethnics have made some sort of compromise with the government and live in relative peace. The Kachins, not so. They have watched what compromise does to culture in group after group across the country and the thought of that happening to them is a horrific one. They refuse to give away their culture and their faith to a government that honors neither.

Sounds like the beginnings of the American nation, perhaps? An oppressed people escaping from oppression elsewhere and refusing to compromise its principals, willing to put together a group of fighters that will challenge the standing army of a mighty nation? More than that, a people trusting that God indeed was in their fight and would win the ultimate victory.

Anyway, the World War is over, the Japanese are gone, and so the return of the missionaries. Awful scenes of destruction greet them. Sixty years’ worth of church buildings nearly all up in smoke. But the rebuilding begins and prospers and the church of Kachin State continues to this day.

Denominations of Christianity in the State include hundreds of Baptist churches, some Churches of Christ, and Anglican churches. Roman Catholicism is a relatively strong presence in the land also, second only to the Baptists, who report nearly half a million in membership, with perhaps 500 ordained ministers.

All in all, the coming of Christ and His Church to the Kachin people, “fermented a social, cultural, and economic transformation. Christianity gave many poor hill tribes, and the Kachins were one of them, a common creed instead of scattered beliefs in the power of spirits. With education came self-esteem and ethnic pride, and an entirely new national consciousness.” (Bertil Lintner in the Revealer.)

III. The Opportunity

A. Present state of the people of Kachin.

For 50 years, the Kachin people have been involved in an on & off Civil War, a struggle against the corrupt and brutal military regime and the government of President Thein Sein. The fight is for their culture, their history, their independence, their very survival as a people. The Kachins after all speak a different language, practice a different religion, and are simply not Burmese. The tool of their defense is the Kachin Independence Army, without which, according to one observer, there would be no Kachin people today.

The cease fire of the late 90’s was broken in June of 2011 when the Kachins would not release territory for the building of a hydropower plant in cooperation with the Chinese government. From that time to this, 1000 soldiers have died and 120,000 residents have been displaced, some going into China and other countries.

As in all places where dictators rule, news about Burma is conflicted. The media glowingly reports a first ever meeting between an American President and the regime of Myanmar. This is May of 2013. And just before that, in March, Burma allows the UN to provide humanitarian aid, with the proviso mentioned below. There are peace talks with rebels, as the Kachins must be designated. Promises are made that reforms are on the way. The public image of the Myanmar government begins to change. There may even be somewhere in the government of Myanmar a sincere desire to change, to enter the family of nations as a full partner.

But the fact of Burma/Myanmar that cannot be erased is the presence of a brutal military that has given the nation an image of inhumanity and corruption not far from North Korea’s ways, from whom by the way Myanmar may be receiving nuclear technology.

Can anyone imagine a nuclear Myanmar?

But the present reality is bad enough for the Kachin people and a host of other peoples of the nation. That reality is that the Burman Buddhist regime must have total control of all the people, the resources, the cash flow, of Myanmar, and will do everything necessary to take it. And so the attacks continue.

What has changed perhaps, and this is tragic, is that the West is looking more favorably to this junta because of the possible trade deals that may be involved. The West once was the champion of the oppressed of Myanmar, but now seems to be interested in those same resources that are being eyed by the government.

Though the interference in Kachin affairs is not every day, it is aggressive enough to leave the State of Kachin in chaos and hopelessness. In November-December of 2013, for example, the army attacked the southern part of Kachin, causing thousands to flee. On January 30, yet another attack forced the remnant to escape. Villagers were taken captive, the towns were looted. The Kachin Army tried to respond and even led some fleeing villagers back to gather some belongings, only to re-encounter the Burmese Army, for which it was no match. In the aftermath of this battle, the corpses of tortured soldiers were found.

Humanitarian aid is being sent into the region, but the “international community” is allowing the Burmese regime to control its distribution. In this way, friends of the government are permitted to penetrate Kachin territory even further.

So, the Kachin people can sit and starve, or open the door to those who would destroy them. Or abuse them. Yes, many independent reports of abusive Burmese soldiers guilty of “heinous acts of sexual violence” and torture of villagers.

B. The present state of the church of Kachin.

“To be Kachin is to be Christian” says an official of the Baptist church in one of the towns of Kachin State. When one hears statements like these he is of course reminded of other religious bodies whose adherents were simply “born” that religion. For the Christian Church, of course, there is a danger here. We know that God has no “grandchildren” and that Christianity is not passed on through human genes. Each Kachin must come to the knowledge of Jesus Christ personally and be born again.

Nevertheless if you ask 9 out of 10 Kachins what is their religion, they will give a clear answer. They know their Book is the Bible, Christ is their head, and the Church has become a part of their heart and soul. They have no desire to give it up. They will kill – in self defense – to preserve this right. Some believers State-side might have a problem with such a notion since our war is to be a spiritual one. Yet, it was spiritual warfare that finally opened the door for Judson and Roberts and all the rest to come to this remote part of the earth and preach Jesus. That same warfare allowed heart after heart to come into a saving relationship with Jesus Christ. Only warring that sort of war will keep individual Kachins in the Kingdom of God.

So, how far are we to take our Christ into the political and military machines of our day? Many American Christians would agree with the “spiritual warfare” concept, but in the next breath desire that radical Muslims be bombed into eternity by our government, today if possible.

There’s something missing there. But we understand the idea. Jesus loves me so He must love my people. Anything that harms me or my people is the enemy and Jesus gives victory over enemies… doesn’t He?

Again Americans, victors in the two World Wars and a few others, are willing to believe that God is on their side when they fight a “just war.” Whatever that might mean… Some Christians are backing away from the justice of American causes in our day. It’s not an easy thing to discuss.

But bring it back to home, and listen to the Kachin dilemma. What if your very home or family member or person or church is suddenly under physical attack. Have you considered what the next step would be, or have we been in a peaceful land so long that this is beyond our comprehension? To help you get thinking about it, be sure to consult the Word. But take a look at Kachin State too. The gut reaction for every true man or woman is to fight. To stand up and protect what is yours. That is what they are doing. In some cases they are winning this struggle. Corpses all over the land testify to the fact that in some cases they are not.

“We believe God will not abandon us,” says one Kachin. Ultimately this is true, even in seemingly God-forsaken North Korea. God’s people find a way to survive, to prosper, to overcome, though not always in the way they had thought they would.

The issue is complex. But let’s get it back to simple terms. You and I have hundreds of thousands of brothers and sisters in the hills of Northeast Myanmar whose lives have been so sub-standard for so long that the standard becomes dim. War. Murder. Rape. Refugees. Hunger. Pain. What can we do about it?

C. What to do?

Begin by prayer.Ask God to direct you to people who are dealing directly with the Kachin people. Find a secure and stable way to funnel help to these people. Then make a commitment that as long as God supplies strength you will keep funneling that money in. Some, because of your help, will be able to have a solid roof over their heads. Some will be able to preach the Gospel, to build a fellowship of believers. Some will eat a little better, care for their children a little more. Things like you do all the time, they will be able to do. I have begun my praying. Some doors have opened to me. I will not give you any leads lest you think I am representing a particular organization or person. You pray and I’ll pray and God will supply their needs according to His riches in glory. And He is rich!

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Can You Have Multiple End Points On A Flow Chart How to Overload the Conscious Mind for Better Hypnosis

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How to Overload the Conscious Mind for Better Hypnosis

The fact is that on average the conscious mind can focus and keep straight 5-9 objects at once. Five things are generally easy for a person to remember, but nine becomes quite difficult. As you can see, this is not a huge number when you include it in the amount of elements, facts or ideas that you can reveal in a conversation.

So when you talk to a person about their car being in the shop and they start giving you a bunch of different facts about the car they drive, the car their parents drive, the car Uncle Tom drives, and Auntie’s car Hilda drives, you can get confused.

You’ll be so busy trying to clarify the various cars, the people who drive them, and the facts about them that you’ll miss the point of the conversation in the first place. Your speaker talked about his car being in the shop.

Overloading the mind with any information will cause the critical factor to become distracted by irrelevant information or shut down altogether. This is a plus for you as a hypnotist because then you can attach a suggestion and it will flow right away.

If a person is able to follow the information, they will more than likely focus on the wrong information, which will still distract the critical factor and enable your proposal anyway.

The idea behind overwhelming people with details is just that. Regardless of the topic or method of presentation, whether it’s fact, fiction, or just random information, you really want to give them plenty of detail to fully utilize this powerful concept.

The next language trick or confusion pattern that will overwhelm your mind is called a spontaneous change of meaning. This is done by a sudden and unexpected combination of two different statements. When you take two statements that end and begin with the same word, you can mash them together to make one sentence that just doesn’t add up.

For example: “I’m going to the store, the milk has run out.” In this statement, the meaning at the beginning and at the end are fine, they make sense. But somewhere in the middle things get a little confusing, just confusing enough that you have to stop and think about what I just said.

If you break down the statement, you see that ‘I’m going to the store’ is quite average and normal; such as “The store ran out of milk.” This sudden change in how people are used to hearing things causes the critical factor to stop for confusion. When this happens, you can simply add your suggestion to the conversation stream and it will go unnoticed again.

Another way to incorporate a spontaneous change of meaning into your conversational hypnosis is to introduce a suggestion into the conversation and then continue speaking as if it never happened. Again, this causes enough confusion for the critical factor to want to stop to figure it out.

This overrides the fact that you are still talking and there is no time to go back to find out. It now unconsciously picks up the suggestion and stores it for future use. Your suggestion comes to mind again as it bypasses the confusing critical factor.

As you incorporate more and more of these spontaneous changes, the mind will not only pick up on the conversation you are having out loud, but will begin to recognize the pattern that is being created within the hidden messages.

Another way to use this change of meaning is to avoid ambiguity altogether and simply combine two statements that end and begin with the same word. These statements will make more sense and be a little less confusing, but still annoying. The key here is to make sure you casually add these statements to the conversation or they will be noticed and picked up on.

Remember to use them when you need them, not for every other statement. If you use this spontaneous change of meaning too often, it can become annoying and overbearing, which is true of most linguistic confusion tactics. Getting too confused can be counterproductive as listeners will no longer want to listen to you.

Finally, we come to the linguistic confusion concept of shock and surprise. It’s a fascinating concept, any time you really shock or surprise someone, you’ll automatically run over the critical factor and break through. The shock and surprise will create its own type of trance induction.

The shock and surprise alone will immediately overload and shut down your conscious thinking, leaving only the unconscious open to suggestion and ready to follow instructions, perfect for a hypnotist.

Care should be taken with the shock and surprise method. Some people don’t like to be shocked and surprised, so make sure you choose the right times and the right people to use this technique on.

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Can You Grow A Rose Bush From A Flower Arrangement Romance & Roses – Romantic Rose Names

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Romance & Roses – Romantic Rose Names

The rose has long been a symbol of romance and love. Her beauty adorned castles, gardens and cottages all over the world. For centuries, it has been conquering with its beauty and often tempting fragrance, charming and captivating lovers. This article lists some of the most romantic rose names of all time!

According to Greek mythology, it was Aphrodite, the “goddess of love,” who gave the rose its name. William Shakespeare wrote in Romeo and Juliet: “What we call by any other name would smell sweet.” A Swedish proverb promises: “If I had a rose every time I think of you, I’d be picking roses all my life.”

Here are some beautiful rose names that capture the essence of pure romance:

Heaven on earth?

Paradise, Cloud Nine, Secret Garden, Lovers Lane, Cottage Garden, Boudoir, Camelot, Eden Rose, Garden Party, Memory Lane, Crystal Palace.

Be mine

Angel Face, Wild Thing, Heart, Casanova, Special Angel, Baby Love, King of Hearts, My Valentine, Sweet Pie, White Angel, June Bride, Valentine’s Day, Olde Romeo, Olde Sweetheart, Red Beauty, Orange Heart, Dream Girl, Sleeping Beauty , Old Fashioned Girl, Sweet Butterfly, Brave Heart, Darling Flame, Dream Lover, Baby Darling, Dream Baby, Dearest, Red Heart, Created Heart, Cupie Doll, My Girl.

My feelings Exactly

Breathless, Burning Desire, Simply Irresistible, Bedazzled, Rapture, Obsession, Amourous, In the Mood, Romance, Charisma, Cherish, Sultry, Puppy Love, Sheer Delight, Sensation, Swonderful, Sweet Dream, Summer Blush, Bliss, Scentsational, Scentimental, Purple Pleasure, Purple Passion, Sweet Sensation, Thinking of You, Tenderly Yours, Remember Me.

Prelude to love

Sweet Valentine, Wild at Heart, Sexy Rexy, Pure Poetry, Belle Amour, Captivation, Lost in Paradise, Love, Unforgettable, Young Love, Rose Romantic, Love in Bloom, Careless Love, Young Hearts, Red Love, Spice, Loveglo, Over the Rainbow, Something Special, Bit of Paradise, Bride’s Dream, Red Hot, Enchanted, Endless Dream, Enduring Love, Beautiful Memories, Forbidden, Irresistible, Forever Mine, Forever Yours.

It’s the moon’s fault

Love Potion, Passionate Kisses, Ruby Lips, Cupid’s Charm, Candlelight, Song of Paris, Venus’s Bouquet, Butterfly Kisses, L’Enchantresse, Little Flirtatus, Moonlight and Roses, Apricot Kisses, Cupid, Pillow Talk, Love, Valentine’s Heart, Kiss of Fire, Lipstick ‘n’ Lace, Coral Kisses, Velvet Touch, Tropical Passion, Star Twinkle, Sunset Song, Secret Obsession, Smooth Romance, Victorian Lace, Stardance, Inspiration, Starlight Fantasy, Starglo, Torch, Pucker Up, Snuggles, Touch Venus, kisses, intrigue, seduction, heart of gold, first kiss, Chantilly lace, burning torch, impulse, emotions, double date, cuddling.

Love notes…

Kiss the Bride, You ‘n’ Me, Dolce Vita, Rose d’Amour, Love Knot, Just for You, Purple Heart, Bride, Promise, Bridal Pink, Wedding Day, For You, Bridal Shower, Fondly, Bridal White, Especially For You, Bridal Sunblaze, Wedded Bliss, Near You, Kiss ‘n’ Tell, Memories, Sincerely yours.

Tips for adding a little romance to your rose garden:

Climbing roses — Enjoy the charm of climbing roses clinging to garden gates, trellises or even an old tree stump. Simply train your climbing rose up the stake in the direction you want it to grow and gently secure the canes with elastic ties.

Fragrance — As if the names weren’t intoxicating enough, have you ever walked past a freshly blooming rose bush and found yourself swooning from the scent in the air? Some roses are beautiful to look at but do not have a strong scent. Brighten up the ambiance by choosing roses with strong fragrances.

Color palette — Sometimes the interplay of colors can present a vivid and breathtaking picture. Try mixing corals with dark pinks or lavenders with soft pinks or fuchsias. Velvet reds are also traditionally popular; and white can be stunning too, especially if it has a drapery effect.

Romantic friends — There are many romantic partners for your roses, here are a few: peonies, lavender, lilac and jasmine.

“And I will make you beds of roses and a thousand fragrant flowers, a cover of flowers, and a kirtle, all embroidered with myrtle leaves.” – Christopher Marlowe in Come Live with Me and be My Love.

And just when you thought a rose was just a rose…

Written by April McCallum — an incurable romantic who loves artistic gardening and landscape design.

You may also enjoy reading: Romance and Roses – Musical Names of Roses

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Describe The Conditions And Location Associated With This Flow Rate Can I Sell My Private Mortgage Notes?

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Can I Sell My Private Mortgage Notes?

Millions of homes are sold in this country every year. Most buyers go to a bank or finance company to seek home financing.

In some cases, 200,000 in the United States, home buyers rely on the seller instead of a financial institution to provide financing because:

o Buyer may not qualify for a traditional loan.

o The buyer may be a relative who wants to save on closing fees.

o The seller may be interested in having a long-term income stream.

Often the seller is pressured to provide financing to the buyer instead of a lump sum. This forces the seller to assume the role of a mortgage company, worrying about servicing and collecting monthly income. The flow, which may or may not be constant, depends on the ability of the payer to meet his monthly obligations.

Peacock Capital offers an option to note holders across the country who are willing to sell their homes and use the equity for their purposes.

We’ll buy the paper for a one-time payment and collect the monthly check. I don’t worry about “The check is in the mail” Or, “Will they stop paying, and force a foreclosure?” Or, “Is my buyer keeping up with their insurance payments?” ETC.

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