Can I Plant Flower Seeds First And Then Kill Grass Organic in the Garden – Removing Flatweed From Your Lawn Without Chemicals

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Organic in the Garden – Removing Flatweed From Your Lawn Without Chemicals

Flatweed is a term used to describe a group of weeds that are invasive to the home lawn. Although flat weed is usually just that, a “flat weed” like Hawkbit. I often refer to other weeds like clover in a similar way.

The traditional method for eradicating these types of weeds from your lawn is to use a selective herbicide that will attack the weeds without affecting the grass itself. The organic gardener will want to avoid these synthetic herbicides.

There are a surprising number of non-traditional and chemical-free ways to remove flat lines from your lawn, including chemical-based alternatives and manual removal.

Some tools have been specially developed to remove flat grass with very little effort. A relatively new commercially available tool, I equipped it with a long handle that allows easy removal of flat wires in an upright position. From memory I believe this tool was invented in Australia and is marketed as the “Grandpa Weeder”.

Small areas can also be worked with a hoe or a hoe. It is always important to remove the entire main root of the weed to prevent possible regrowth.

Larger areas or neglected lawns can be removed by solarization using black plastic to warm the soil surface for several weeks before reseeding the area with new turf. Before adding plastic, it is a good idea to cut with a brush or close cut with a lawnmower. It is also recommended not to cut or mow when seed heads are present. The ideal time is when the plants are flowering or before flowering.

Organic farmers have been using goats or pigs to remove weeds for years. Goats will eat almost anything and pigs will dig up the soil to get to the roots. Of course, this is not appropriate in a domestic environment, but when you are cleaning a large area for a new lawn or house plot, it is worth borrowing a goat from the farmer to help with the cleaning.

Common salt (table salt) has historically been used as a “stain remover” from plantains. Many people don’t like to use salt, but I use it to weave in spots and cracks in the footpath. I prefer this to using synthetic herbicides because I only apply a teaspoon to the top of the plant after making a cross cut on the top of the plant first to speed up the process. Small but repeated deposits in footpath cracks will lead to potentially free paths.

Regular application of high-nitrogen fertilizers, such as chicken manure, can also help maintain a thick, healthy lawn, which can help prevent any regrowth of flatworms.

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Can I Plant A Flower Garden Up Against Neighbors Fence Increasing a Homes Value With Landscaping

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Increasing a Homes Value With Landscaping

Landscaping can add thousands of dollars in value to your home, according to Cam Merritt, Demand Media. The immediate added value grows as the plants become fuller and mature over time. Additionally, the real value of landscaping is in the feelings you get when you pull up to your home. don’t you believe An article in Miller-McCune mentioned several studies related to the positive influence of nature. Having plants, walking in a park or even looking at the scenery could have psychological benefits, reducing stress and improving concentration.

Year after year, homeowners spend billions of dollars creating beautiful escapes right on their property. Whether it’s you or a company, the front of your home is the first to greet you or your guests. And your yard is away from the outside world. All this is affordable for the national debt. So unless you have your own country of taxpayers paying for your every whim and fancy, let’s start small.

One of the easiest ways to beautify your yard is by adding mulch. Add about a 4-inch layer of mulch around the base of trees or flower beds to help control weeds. In addition, the mulch prevents moisture from evaporating. As the mulch breaks down, it becomes healthier soil that will produce healthier plants. The preferred mulch depends on how and where you intend to use it. Chopped bark or mini chips are used for walkways, they compact well and create a flat base. Around trees or shrubs where people won’t walk, larger bark granules can last for years. In warmer areas, inorganic mulches (stone or volcanic rock) keep the soil cooler. When adding the second layer, never go too deep to impede the flow of air and moisture to the plants.

When homeowners start landscaping, they often over look hardscape elements. (walkways, paths, decks, fences, yards and buildings) A tool is any inanimate part of the landscape. In addition to the usual repair and painting of wooden or metal pieces, consider what needs to be done on concrete or stone surfaces. A simple cleaning and edging can make a world of difference. If your yard is large, adding a second path made with mulch, bark chips, or stone will break up the large lawn. Paths that wind up to a corner garden or park bench give the feeling of an estate.

Add a decorative fence or trellis to hide unsightly views. (trash bins, mulch piles, neighbors) Planting climbing plants, flowers or even edible plants provides an even softer look. Stone walls give a more solid dimensional look and add levels to a normally flat area.

Don’t forget the gazebos. Most people believe that a gazebo is a huge structure. Today’s homeowners simply need to drive to their local DIY store. The hardest part of these kits can be about which one to buy. The instructions are written to be clear and designed to be easy to put together in less than a day. Casting gives you an extra room to enjoy those summer nights.

Have you ever driven by a house during the day and not thought about it? Later, when it gets dark, see it glow and say WOW! Landscaping lights can make a difference between day and night. (Sorry, I just couldn’t resist) If you’ve been thinking about lighting, first ask yourself “what do I want to achieve?” Soft romantic mood. Light up a fountain, part of your home or something special in your garden. Maybe just to highlight a path or a walk. Not to mention the safety aspects. Rogues love shadows. As you begin to focus on the things you want to light, the light types, colors, and spacings take shape. There are many different 12 volt lighting systems that allow DIYers to add lighting without the expense of an electrician.

When creating your planting plan, keep it simple. Look around your neighborhood to get ideas about what mature gardens will look like. You may also want to consider seasonal flowers. If you love fresh flowers, plant flowering plants for each season. Layers of flowers or ground cover. Trees or shrubs. The good news is that you don’t have to do it all at once. You can start with a tree and some plants. Next year some bushes. Once your project gets underway, it may even change from the original plan. Special note for trees and some bushes: Think ahead! Trees and shrubs are great additions to any landscape project, but they are the hardest to change. A tree that makes a great accent when it’s 4 feet tall can completely eliminate the view you were trying to promote as it grows. Shrubs can overgrow walkways and paths. When choosing, pay attention to growth heights and ranges. Trees planted near the house can grow and destroy gutters and roof shingles.

Personal notes. yes! Nomes, globes, metal animal shapes, even wind chimes add that personal touch. Whether it’s plastic birds or rocks with funny words, it’s all your signature on your artwork.

Finally, don’t forget garden furniture, lounges, chairs and a garden table. Why would you want to put in all the effort if you and your friends can’t enjoy it? Sit back, take a long cold sip and enjoy!

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Can I Pay My Flow Bill Through Another Online Portal Who Invented the Internet – What Is the Future?

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Who Invented the Internet – What Is the Future?

Before the Internet was actually the Internet, it was called ARPAnet. ARPA-Who? Yes, it sure is a funny sounding name. Especially considering what the internet is today, literally covering every aspect of our lives. ARPAnet is an acronym for Advanced Research Projects Agency Network. In the late 1960s, the Advanced Research Projects Agency and the Department of Defense embarked on a mission. They tried to find a way to simplify communication and data exchange, but without using the old telephone method of ‘circuit switching’ to carry voice and data communication. This method could only send from one to the other linearly – end to end.

When the ARPAnet was once established, as rudimentary as it was in the beginning (late 70s, early 80s), it used packet switching to allow communication and data to be sent and received to multiple locations. Thus, the TCP/IP communication protocols were born. You can probably thank Robert Kahn and Vint Cerf, who are often called the father of the Internet, for this. What began as a defense project quickly expanded to the National Science Foundation (NSF) and academia—enabling real-time information sharing. In 1989, ARPAnet was shut down and replaced by NSFnet.

The first commercial use of the Internet

The first public and commercial use of the Internet came in mid-1989 when Compuserve and MCImail added email service to anyone who wanted it. Next, PSInet sets up the commercial part for the Internet backbone. Then, by the end of 1990, Tim Berners-Lee introduced hypertext transfer protocols, and this should sound very familiar to everyone; HTTP. He came next; HTML, UseNet and FTP (File Transfer Protocol). The Internet was established and only in their wildest dreams could they have imagined that today there are just over 4 billion people connected to the Internet worldwide – soon everyone will be connected and it will affect their lives in some way.

The Internet has forever changed the way we do business

Before the Internet, businesses used faxes, Federal Express and Zap Mail package delivery, Snail Mail (USPS), and very limited data transmission with Alpha pagers (very short text messages that you can answer with Y or N for yes or no). . At the time, people were upset about spam fax advertising, little did they know that the future of spam would bite hard on this nonsense – although it would only be 1,000 times worse. Before spam blockers, users removed the letters from the “delete” key within a month of buying a new computer.

The Internet has accelerated the flow of information and the speed of business to such an extent that Bill Gates wrote a book in 1999; Business @ Speed ​​of Thought. Of course, by the mid-1990s, almost every legitimate business, large and small, had or was building a website. Why not have an online brochure available 24/7 without having to print and send the information to potential customers? Yes, the printing industry was suffering, printing presses across the country were collapsing almost as quickly as the film development industry disappeared with the advent of digital cameras.

Major evolutionary shifts in the commercial use of the Internet

Yes, the Internet has changed everything in our world, but nowhere is the shift more dramatic than in the business world. From 1990 to 2000, everything changed in 10 years. It was a chaotic time, but a time of momentous occasion. There is always opportunity in change. The faster the changes, the more chaos, crisis and yes, opportunity. Below is a short list of some of the paradigm shifts that the Internet has brought to business;

  1. Commercial e-mail has become the preferred method of written communication

  2. Companies, regardless of size, have built websites – they are competing on a level playing field

  3. Interactive websites have made it possible for customers and businesses to do business online

  4. Industry portal websites appeared with information in all sectors of the economy

  5. Search engine competition has evolved rapidly to meet consumers’ immediate information needs

  6. Message boards, then blogs, brought two-way open transparent information for business communication

  7. Social networks and social business networks began to grow

  8. The whole world became mobile with smartphones – the internet followed – the rest is history

Today, the world’s information is at your fingertips, wherever you are and whenever you want it. Soon, the SpaceX LEO (Low Earth Orbit) Satellite Network System, Starlink, will provide internet services anywhere on the planet and anyone with a mobile device will be able to access the internet. Well, that just changes everything and here we go again. Are you ready for the next wave of opportunity/chaos with the next satellite launch? It’s already here and deployed. It will be available online in 2020. The Internet does not disappoint again – change is the only constant of the Internet. Your business should constantly take advantage of these new technologies

What’s next? What is the next big evolution in business computing?

It turns out that this is easy to predict, as the industry and the world’s largest corporations are already preparing. Consider connecting the Internet of Things (IoT), Big Data and AI (Artificial Intelligence) in real time to the cloud and have all this secure data and information ready for anyone, anywhere on any mobile device?

Imagine running a factory, supply chain, construction project, hospital, university, financial institution or multiple retail locations and having the exact relevant information you need at a moment’s notice? Imagine all these systems integrated, systematized and optimally configured for maximum efficiency – at any workplace, location and need-to-know information for every team member in real time.

From a business perspective, the Internet has just become 100 times more useful, but only if you take advantage of these changes and opportunities.

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Can You Use Carburetor Cleaner For Mass Air Flow Sensor Your Vehicle’s Sensors – How to Test Some of Them

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Your Vehicle’s Sensors – How to Test Some of Them

After retrieving the trouble codes from the on-board computer, you can now check the sensors. Always refer to the service manual for the specifications of your vehicle make and model.

The first fault code to check is the Throttle Position Sensor (TPS). The TPS is installed either on the carburetor side or on the side of fuel injected models. It is attached to the throttle body. Visually inspect the sensor for worn insulation on the wires and a loose or cracked connection. Disconnect the sensor.

With the digital volt ohm meter or DVOM in the 20k ohms position, connect the positive DVOM lead to the center terminal of the sensor. Connect the negative DVOM cable to one of the other sensors’ terminals. Slowly move the throttle until it is in the wide open position. Depending on which terminal you connected the negative DVOM lead to, the DVOM reading should increase or decrease evenly. Release the throttle slowly. If the DVOM reading is not gradual and steady, but instead moves at an uneven rate, the sensor is faulty and needs to be replaced. Reconnect the sensor. Clear trouble codes from ECM memory by disconnecting the negative battery cable for at least ten seconds.

Your next error code indicates Mass Air Flow (MAF). The MAF sensor is located between the air cleaner and the engine throttle body. Start the engine to test. Take the handle of a screwdriver and gently tap the MAF on the side of the plug several times. DO NOT STRIKE THE SENSOR WITH FORCE, IT MAY BREAK. If the engine staggers, misfires or stops working, the sensor is faulty and needs to be replaced. Clear trouble codes from ECM memory by disconnecting the negative battery cable for at least ten seconds.

Begin the oxygen sensor test by removing the sensor from the vehicle. The oxygen sensor is located in the exhaust manifold or in the exhaust pipe. Visually inspect the sensor for worn insulation on the wire and a loose connection. Start the engine and let it run for about five minutes, then shut off the engine. Disconnect the sensor. Attach the sensor connector away from the exhaust manifold; tape the connector well to the fender if possible. Turn the digital ohmmeter to the millivolt setting, connect the positive DVOM lead to the sensor terminal, and ground the negative DVOM lead to an unpainted ground. Restart the engine. Note the DVOM reading. It should fluctuate between 100 and 1000 mv (0.1 and 1.0 volts). If the voltage does not fluctuate in the above pattern, the oxygen sensor is faulty and needs to be replaced. Reconnect the sensor. Clear trouble codes from ECM memory by disconnecting the negative battery cable for at least ten seconds. Do not set the digital volt ohmmeter to the ohmmeter setting to avoid damaging the oxygen sensor.

The following error code indicates a Manifold Air Pressure (MAP) sensor. The MAP sensor is usually located on the firewall or fender. Visually inspect the vacuum hose and sensor connector for damage or loose connections, then disconnect the sensor. Connect a jumper wire from terminal A on the MAP sensor to terminal A on the connector. Connect the connector to the other jumper wire in the same way. Turn on the ignition switch. DO NOT BURN THE ENGINE. Using a digital volt ohmmeter (DVOM) in the 20 VDC setting, connect the positive lead of the DVOM to terminal B on the MAP sensor. Ground the negative lead of the DVOM to an unpainted ground. Observe the reading; it should be between 4.5 and 5 volts. Start the engine, let it idle. Let the engine idle and repeat the previous step. If it does not differ from the regular ones, the sensor is defective and needs to be replaced. Reconnect the sensor. Clear trouble codes from ECM memory by disconnecting the negative battery cable for at least ten seconds.

This way you can test some of the sensors on the vehicle. There are many more sensors on the car. Depending on the make and model of the vehicle, you can also test them in other ways. When preparing to retrieve trouble codes or test sensors, always check your service manual for specifications and how to test sensors.

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Can You Use Bread Flower In Replace Of Real Flower Learn to Talk Like a Hippie

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Learn to Talk Like a Hippie

Want to learn to talk like a hippie? The flower children of the 1960s invented dozens of countercultural words and expressions to describe their experiences and beliefs. Whether you’re planning a party to celebrate peace and love or just want to learn some hipster slang, here’s a quick list of hippie words and expressions.

Baby or Baby: A term of endearment to men or women, such as “Honey.”

Bag: A favorite hobby or pastime, as in “Playing the guitar is my bag, honey.”

Bra Ban: A feminist phrase. The bra was considered a symbol of women’s oppression and was sometimes burned in protest.

Bread: Money or cash. “I wish I didn’t have to work, but I need bread.”

Error: An unfortunate event or sad feeling. “What a fool, man!”

Cat: Nice man.

chicken: A beautiful young woman.

cool: Admirable or trendy and worthy of imitation.

Exit: A poor excuse for inaction or a lazy way. “He said the dog ate all our cookies. What a cop!”

to dig: “I understand,” means “I understand your point of view.” Also a way to describe something you really like, like “I really love these sandals.”

Make your own!: Do whatever makes you happy.

Swipe: Bored or frustrated. “What misery!”

Away!: “Great!”

Children of flowers: Hippies were called flower children because they wore flowers in their hair, on their clothes and drew flowers on everything.

Flower Power: The flowers symbolized the power of love over hate. Most famously, hippies planted flower stems in law enforcement gun barrels during wartime protests.

Funky: Elegant in an unconventional way. For example, music and fashion can be fun.

Generation gap: It identifies the divergence between the ideals of modern, young adults and those of older and more conservative generations.

Be serious: Be realistic. You are in denial.

Follow the flow: Keep calm and let things take their course.

Groovy!: The most pleasant! The coolest!

Problem: Problems or issues. “I was harassed by the police. What trouble!”

If you feel good, do this: Be unhindered, enjoy as you wish.

Laid Back: Peaceful and calm. “The crowd was relaxed.”

cover: A $10 bag of marijuana, then a full ounce.

Love Balls: Natural beads that were fun to wear and fun to give as a token of friendship.

Love: A hippie happening with love for everything as a central theme.

Make love not war: Hippies chanted this slogan to protest war and promote peace and love.

men: Pronounced instead of a man’s name, for example, dude, buddy, pal, friend, chum. “Hey man, I get your Hendrix poster.”

Men: Authority, e.g. The police.

Mellow: Pleasant and pleasant.

Mellow Out: Take it easy; keep calm

Munchies: A ravenous hunger, “I’ve got a bite!” It also means comfort food, for example: “We have prepared many bites to share.”

Out of sight or out of sight: It means fantastically, “The Beatles are out of sight!”

Plastic: False or artificial.

Rap: Rap means friendly discussion. To rap means to speak. The word was not associated with music as it is today.

Keep it up!: An exclamation meaning “I totally agree!” Political emphasis is indicated by a raised fist.

Righteous: Worthy and praiseworthy.

Scene: Party or place where cool people meet. “Dig this awesome scene!”

Sale: Abandon counterculture ideals for material or personal gain. “She sold herself to work in the bank. What a sale!”

Share: To leave. “Let’s split this scene.” “We must part at midnight.”

square: It describes a person or thing that is conformist, simple and very uncool. “My mom is such a square!”

Thing: A total obsession or favorite pastime. “Incense is my thing, baby!”

Threads: Clothes.

trippy: Fascinating and enchanting with psychedelic overtones.

Tense: Stressed or on edge. “My dad gets so excited around my boyfriend.”

vibrations: Short for vibration, it means feeling or intuition. “This place gives off great vibes.” “I’m getting bad vibes from that cop.”

Output: Hard to believe or really unbelievable.

What’s happening’?: What?

Where is!: A highly recommended place to visit. “Haight-Ashbury is where it’s at, baby.”

This list of hippie slang is far from complete. What hippie words or expressions do you know that are not on this list?

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Can You Use Almond Flour In Place Of Coconut Flower Using a Homemade Face Mask for Skin Inflammation

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Using a Homemade Face Mask for Skin Inflammation

Many things can cause skin inflammation, and the condition varies in severity. Fever, infections, allergies and drug reactions are common causes of inflammation. The skin may burn, look red, and become dry, itchy, or develop a rash or blisters. The condition can be easily treated with a homemade face mask or require professional treatment.

Some prefer natural treatments and several natural substances have anti-inflammatory properties:

  • Almond Flour: Made from ground raw almonds, it has an exfoliating and mild whitening effect and is used in face masks, scrubs and scrubs.
  • Almond Oil: Obtained by pressing almonds, it has a high concentration of fatty acids, making it ideal for inflamed, itchy skin. Almond oil can be used as a carrier base for essential oil ingredients in moisturizing balms, creams, and lotions, or it can be applied directly as a moisturizer.
  • Calendula: This essential oil is made from the petals and its soothing quality earns it a place on ingredient lists for healing, anti-inflammatory balms and masks.
  • Calophyllum Oil: This soothing, beneficial, healing oil comes from the seeds of a tree native to Tahiti. It is used in oil blends designed to treat skin that is inflamed due to cracks, eczema or psoriasis.
  • Honey: draws moisture from the air to the skin, used in face mask recipes that address inflammation caused by dryness
  • Myrrh: Made from tree resin and used in lotions and face masks for its anti-fungal, anti-bacterial and anti-infection properties. Myrrh balances the skin, provides hydration and stimulates tissue regeneration.
  • Rosehip Oil: With a high content of fatty acids from rosehip seeds, this oil heals damaged skin. It also contains omega acids that treat inflammation caused by the sun, making it a common ingredient in face masks and lotions.

Inflamed skin can be soothed with a face mask containing two teaspoons of arrowroot, one teaspoon each of finely ground almond meal and cornmeal, and one ounce of full earth. Add enough yogurt, apple cider vinegar, or honey to create a soft paste when the ingredients are combined. Apply this mask on your face, leave it on for ten to 15 minutes, rinse with lukewarm water and pat dry.

Recipes for homemade face masks for inflamed skin are an alternative to ready-made products available in stores and online. People prepare them when they prefer to be aware of which ingredients apply to their skin. This prevents them from using anything that could make their already irritated skin feel worse.

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Can You Use A Pressure Regulator As A Flow Restrictor Analysis of Risks to a Project Developer in a Term Sheet Or a Power Purchase Agreement (PPA)

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Analysis of Risks to a Project Developer in a Term Sheet Or a Power Purchase Agreement (PPA)

Project Finance has become an increasingly attractive technique for financing infrastructure projects in developing countries over the last twenty years. Furthermore, the use of project financing raises difficult legal issues with respect to the ability of developing countries’ governments to control the provision of public services that are intimately connected to these infrastructure projects. Project finance has several advantages, such as the opportunity for investors to participate directly in an otherwise inaccessible and lucrative-albeit risky-market and the ability to participate in high-risk investments without diminishing creditworthiness. Lenders for projects are primarily large international commercial banks, such as ABN Amro and Citibank, or multilateral lending agencies, such as the International Finance Corporation (IFC) and the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD). They will in no doubt, therefore, seek to put in some issues in a term sheet.

The first step in setting up a project financing usually involves the sponsors or developers forming a project company known as a special purpose vehicle or entity, which is designed to construct, own, and operate the project facility. Thus project finance benefits sectors or industries in which projects can primarily be structured as a separate entity from their sponsors or developers.

Thus it is the project company, which is the entity that is borrowing funds for the project. The lenders loan money to the project company with the assets and cash flow of the project acting as the security interest for the project loans.

Definitions and Meanings

European Investment Bank defines project finance as “a loan made primarily against cash flows generated by the project, rather than relying on a corporate balance sheet, the security value of the physical assets or other forms of security”.

A project developer is the sponsor or the borrower for the project.

A power purchase agreement (PPA) is an agreement which serves as one of the pre-requisites for the lender to borrow funds for a project. It is a contract that “there will be ready market for the project on completion”.

A term sheet is an outline of the principal terms and conditions proposed for the project and investment. It is not in itself a legal document but a sort of draft proposals subject for approval by all parties involved.

Types of Risks

In project transactions, there are typically numerous parties from different jurisdictions involved, and accordingly, the laws of many different jurisdictions are potentially applicable to any given transaction. Thus the uncertainties or fears expressed by each party translate to a risk of a sort. It becomes important that the terms sheet or the PPA or the PSA be analysed accordingly and where necessary, find the appropriate legal regulations or instruments to mitigate any risks.

Risks are different for each project – they are often country-specific, and differ depending on the kind of project one wishes to undertake.

There are, generally different kinds of risks with the magnitude being different from one project to another project. Some of the acceptable forms of risks that should be considered at all costs are as follows:

– Sponsor risks

– Pre-completion risks

– Inflation and foreign exchange risk

– Operating risks

– Technological risks

– Completion risk

– Input risk

– Approvals, regulatory and environmental risk

– Offtake and sales risk

– Political risks

Believe it or not, when all the risks-financial, construction & completion risks, technology & performance risks, foreign exchange & availability risks- are critically analysed, it could be deduced that they are to a greater extent linked to government’s policies; in other words, political activities or ideologies. Linking political risk to regulatory risk in most of his study, Louis T. Wells, Jr described Political and regulatory risks as a key impediment to private investment in the infrastructure sectors of developing and transition economies; and are defined as” threats to the profitability of a project that derive from some sort of governmental action or inaction rather than from changes in economic conditions in the marketplace: in each case, action or inaction by political authorities or their agents, rather than changes in supply and demand of goods and services, must be the proximate cause of the change in profitability”(Moran H Theodore ,1999). Planning and political risk occurs due to the long gestation periods of infrastructure projects. During these long periods, projects are vulnerable to changes in policy (Vickerman, 2002).

Despite the appeal of project finance, the extensive amount of political risk associated with it is very high. For this report, political risk is going to be mentioned and analysed most as the main risk to the project developer.

Political risk:

Generally, the main known political risks are the following:

-Expropriation:

The act of taking something from its owner for public use. There are many instances in the former eastern Europe and especially in Africa, where governments decide at the break of the day to take something from a private individual for the use and benefit of the public in the name of what they term as “people’s power” ,” revolution” and so on. This is very upsetting and makes project development a high risk to a project developer.

-Nationalisation:

Transfer of business from private to state ownership. This is not usually experienced in the west as in South America and Africa. Political ideologies in most part of these continents are influenced by one-party state cronies who believe in nationalism than in capitalism. There is the saying that “once bitten, twice shy”; most of these governments are in the developing countries and have the fear that as the west colonised them in the past it could happen again.

-Change of law:

The host government can change the laws overnight and this can affect a project. Sometimes for economic and political reasons, tax laws are enacted which might not be to the advantage of the project developer in terms of the cost increase to certain elements which could increase the purchase price of the product on completion and can jeopardise the PPA.For example an increase in the fuel tax can affect the supply of fuel to the project. Environmental-related issues are also to be blamed for reasons in change of law to please environmentalist pressure group and sometimes for political reasons. Any or all of these could one way or the other affect the project developer in an on-going project or proposed project.

Furthermore, there could be a breach of contract for political reasons.

Thus accordingly, Theodore, (1999) divided the political and regulatory risks that private infrastructure investments and for that matter the project developer are exposed to, into three overlapping categories:

a) Parastatal performance risks: risks of non-compliance with supplier agreements or purchase agreements by the government or government entities leading to political risk. This is to say that government agents or authorities will fail to honour their part of the obligation thereby politicizing the issue.

b) Traditional political risks: risks relating to political uncertainty, lack of Government support, delay in clearances (which primarily have to be taken from government authorities), currency convertibility and transferability, expropriation and breach of investment agreement. This could take any form from delaying permits to failing to sign licenses on time because someone is not happy because no gifts might have “passed under the bridge”. There is therefore, the tendency that the project developer will face this exposure, which lenders would not be happy with.

c) Regulatory risks: risks arising from the application and enforcement of regulatory rules, both at the economy-wide and the industry- or project-specific level. They overlap because they affect one or the other politically. Within emerging economies and under developing countries, regulatory bodies are being set up as independent bodies to minimise the political risk faced by the investors. However, in many instances, these so called independent bodies may come under tremendous pressures from their governments and tend to get influenced. For instance, a regulator, for political reasons, may make decisions relating to tariffs that render a project unattractive to investors, sometimes with the view to transfer the deal to a family friend or a political crony. This is a very common practice in Ghana.

Furthermore, infrastructure projects are subject to continuous interface with various other regulatory authorities that expose them to possible regulatory actions thus affecting their profitability. It is conceivable that explicit tariff formulae ensuring remunerative pricing at the start of the project can be negated subsequently by regulatory authorities on the grounds that tariff was too high. This issue is also very common in Ghana where the term “big elephant” has become synonymous with projects that have been abandoned over the years due to the above political reasons.

Nonetheless, the following risks can be argued to have their roots in one political activity or the other.

Legal risks

Following change of law in political risk discussed above, possible legal risks to a project developer include inadequate legal, legislative, and regulatory framework on sales tax, export & import restrictions, pensions, health and safety rules and penalties for non-compliance. Sometimes the case and administrative laws in the country concerned are not developed. These issues are of great concern to lenders and for that matter the project developer will have to deal with this risk.

Construction & completion risk

Another key risk is construction and completion risk. In the event when construction of the project is delayed for any reason whatsoever, the completion date might be affected.Levnders, therefore, focus upon cost & schedule overruns and time-delay risks of the project in great detail.

Sponsor risks

This risk deals with n two significant issues which banks are so much concern with. They are equity commitment and corporate substance (i.e. corporate strengths and experience).On corporate substance; banks consider that sponsor risk has something to do with completion date and for that matter completion risk. For this reason, whether or not the sponsor or project developer has sought pre-completion guarantees, the banks looks further by working with corporate sponsors with substantial technical expertise and financial depth. because of the belief that “one puts his money where his heart belongs”, regarding equity, lenders will normally require a contribution between 15% to 50% of the project cost to ensure the sponsor is committed to complete the project on schedule.

Financial risks

Financial risks usually cover interest rates, foreign exchange rate & availability risk, currency and inflation. Inflation really affects the project developer in a PPA for reasons like raising the cost of the project which can delay its completion due to lack of funds. Some governments are also skeptical about foreign investment in their country and sometimes prevent the repatriation of funds by foreigners outside. Devaluation and interest rate just like inflation can also affect the projects negatively especially when provision has not been made in the PPA for that. International funds are often cheaper than local ones, but given the fact that the energy generated is sold locally, and paid in local currency, using foreign loans creates exposure to the risk of currency depreciation.

Environmental risks

Global warming is becoming ‘national word’ if not a household word. Thus environmental risk is of great concern to both the government and a project developer because of the aftermath of certain projects like land degradation, pollution of rivers, and air. Lenders are concerned about their liability to meet vast claims arising out of pollution caused by borrowers and so demand high in a PPA.In a PPA, for example, the sponsor or the project developer is responsible to provide “reasonable and customary measures within its control required to ensure the protection and security of the site”. This goes to say that the project developer is responsible to secure regulatory and other approvals like licences and other local permits needed for the project. The significance of this is that until recently, project developers leave land unattended after exploratory activities and corporate social responsibility was not known to corporate bodies but now it is gaining roots. To please the locals, corporate bodies have to take extra responsibilities because of the aftermath of certain projects. This could even serve as guarantee for borrowers.

Offtake and sales risk

The uncertainty that the project will fail to take off and bring in adequate income to offset the cost of the project is known as Offtake and sales risk. When a project fails to generate the required income, lenders cannot be repaid. Sometimes the selling of the output to the market is also uncertain. Banks in effect have high interest in anything that might affect this risk and so will look for assurances in the business plan of the project developer. The onus of this risk is that the project developer had to make extensive market analysis to get to know the market demand for the product or output. It could be energy alright but if the macroeconomic situation of the country concerned is not sound, the income generated could not meet the investment. Ghana had a similar experience in the late 90s when the government in power decided to extend electricity grid to the rural areas where .It became a big issue as the villagers could not afford the payment of the tariff , the government could not pay either and the electricity corporation had to run a huge debt.

Technology & operation risk:

Technology risk is usually when the technology being applied or proposed for the project is “very new” and not really known by the lenders. Lenders are particularly concerned about such projects and will do anything to minimise such risk. Operation risk deals with the aftermath of the project and it running.i.e the risk that forecasted cash flows arising from the failure of operations of the project. Banks are not only concerned with the competency and financial capability of the contractor but also those who are going to run the project must apply the relevant technology for its day to day activities in order to generate the required cashflow.

– Others like local knowledge, customs of the local people, for example if it has to deal with hydro-related project, some river deities have to be pacified and the project could be delayed for the mere reason that some chiefs or local leaders might politicised the whole customary rites to the extent that the project cost might swell or even be called off.

Even though we are not analysing the responsibilities of the seller and buyer in a PPA, suffice it to say that both parties’ responsibilities are considered vital hence the need to have proper enabling environment especially politically in order to execute the project successfully. This will have to come about with the help of the Government in power.

Actually, developers have built up experience in negotiating PPAs and factor in time for negotiations which are necessary to get a satisfactory deal. Wind energy schemes are generally seen as a low risk technology, compared to other renewable energy technologies.

Nevertheless some developers have noted that PPAs are generally not long enough and that it takes time to find a suitable solution which can lead to delays. Most comments in relation to PPAs focused on the need to maintain certainty in the Renewable Obligation in order to avoid destabilising the market. One smaller developer noted that ‘political change is a big worry…we wouldn’t be able to finance projects if the RO changed’.

The minimum investment criteria for renewable energy projects varied from respondent to respondent, but typically investors do not want to commit to projects until financial close or beyond, when all project risks have been satisfactorily mitigated in terms of planning, technology, performance and long-term revenue security (PPA). Some investors will look for a minimum project size, in terms of installed capacity or output per annum, whilst others will look for a minimum amount of debt to be provided at an internally acceptable rate of return.

Mitigating the Risks

In the World Report 2006 by UNCTAD,some key causes of delay were discussed.

Although of the perceived risks, no single element was unanimously highlighted from the responses as the most significant cause for delay. It was reported that, beyond planning approval, mitigating risks to enable finance and insurance to be secured is the next most significant barrier highlighted by all of the developers. The ability for a developer to raise finance is greatly affected by the perceived risks of the project and or the developer himself. Financial investors or lenders will typically require all risks associated with fuel supply, planning conditions, construction & completion, and wayleave rights, power purchase agreements, technology and the EPC contract mitigated prior to their participation, which would normally not be before project financial close has been reached. This will also inevitably be a concern to a project developer.

Nonetheless, the following approaches have been suggested as ways and means to reduce or eliminate the risks mentioned above. Among them are:

Track record of country:

With regard to political risk, the solution lies in having a stable political atmosphere in the country in which the project developer is investing. And because of the way some political leaders influence the populace with their ideologies, it id expedient that there is a sound legal framework like rule of law in place to combat the way issues are politicised.Sometimes it is clear that personal ideologies are made to take precedence over what will benefit the whole nation. Another mitigating approach is to have proper laid down investment and other financial regulations in place which can help out project developers reduce or eliminate political risk in a PPA.Local knowledge is also very important. A recent issue reported in the News and the Financial Times about locals in Ethiopia killing 9 Chinese workers among 74 people working in an exploration site in Ethiopia because of what the locals described as “not having their permission to mine in their territory”. This kind of issue could have been avoided should the Chinese knew about the local perception about their presence with regard to the project and adhered to. In most instances, sound macro-economic indicators i.e. sovereign credit rating, for reserves, trade balance, future government obligations are very important to lenders and provide guarantee to the project risks being minimised.

Insurance by World bank or credit export agencies:

The risks of a Government changing its position in terms of law could be covered on the political risk insurance market. Occasionally, export credit agencies enabled equipment suppliers to sell on credit by covering most of the buyers’ credit risk. The market for political risk insurance in developing countries is still small. This is because; first, significant South-South FDI is a recent phenomenon, and as a result, demands for political risk insurance from developing-country. Traditionally focusing on trade, export credit agencies (ECAs) in developing countries have not yet fully developed political risk insurance services for investors and their capacity to underwrite is limited. There are, however, indications that concerns about political risk and awareness of risk mitigators are growing as investors from developing countries seek out business opportunities in other developing countries.

Occasionally, export credit agencies enabled equipment suppliers to sell on credit by covering most of the buyers’ credit risk. But in recent years, several new risk mitigation instruments have become available.

Lease-purchase scheme:

The full package of risk mitigants used in typical project finance can carry a high cost, too high for smaller projects. But some of the concepts of project finance can be used even in rather small projects in order to reduce risks. For example, the “limited recourse” aspect of project finance has been used in a lease-purchase scheme for small hydropower plants in Cambodia. It works like this; local entrepreneurs prepare the project, showing that the proposed plant is economically and financially viable. On the basis of this feasibility study, they can then negotiate a power purchase agreement with the national utility, Electricité de Cambodge (EdC), and they would also sign a lease-purchase agreement for the hydropower plant; both will come into operation only once the plant has actually been constructed. On the basis of these two agreements, the entrepreneur can then obtain short-term construction loans from local banks and equipment suppliers – in other words, until the plant is constructed, the entrepreneur takes all the risks.

However, once the plant is operational, the lease-purchase agreement becomes operational: EdC buys the plant from the entrepreneur for the total of his construction loans, which can then be reimbursed. EdC leases back the plant to the entrepreneur, and deducts the payments due for the lease from the electricity payments it makes under the PPA. After a fixed lease period, the entrepreneur can buy the plant from EdC for a symbolic US$ 1. This scheme considerably reduces financing risks and, therefore, costs, and makes this form of renewable energy competitive with conventional energy sources. This scheme in my opinion will work not for small projects but also many projects in general considering the fact that the lease-purchase scheme becomes operational after the project has been completed.

Receivable-based finance:

The crux of the receivables-based financing structure lies in leveraging contractual obligations within the value chain. Receivables from the power purchaser or receivables from other partners in the chain can be used either as security or for directly meeting the financial obligations related to the renewable energy project.

Structured finance techniques:

Structured finance can help overcome some of these barriers and manage many of the risks, though not all (policy-and regulation-related issues need to be dealt with by Governments; limited local managerial capacity or poor understanding of renewable energy projects in local banks can be tackled by donor-funded capacity-building programs, etc.). Financial risks can be mitigated through the incorporation of certain elements into the financing structure (e.g. escrow accounts), while others can be shifted to third parties. The possibilities for shifting risk are improving. For example, the possibilities to shift risk to the capital market, through securitization, have much improved.

Structured finance techniques, which are widely used by financiers in the commodity sector to mitigate a series of risks, can help to reduce the “funding gap” for renewable energy projects, and can help Governments and aid agencies to improve the leverage that they achieve with their financial support. Several case studies illustrate how this can lead to successful projects. Renewable energy is a sector in full expansion -even though it is still far from replacing hydrocarbons as the major source of energy. Renewable energy offers great opportunities for developing countries, in particular for areas that are not immediately adjacent to existing electricity grids. However, private sector financiers are often wary of funding renewable energy projects – a sector with which they are often not very familiar and which carries certain risks. Governments and aid donors support the expansion of the sector, but often have difficulty finding sustainable models.

UNCTAD has done considerable work on the use of structured finance techniques in developing countries, particularly for the commodity sector. Use of such techniques reduces the risks taken by the financier, including by shifting risk from the borrower to other parties who are more creditworthy, leaving the financier with performance risks rather than credit risks on the borrower. The general principles of structured finance and its potential uses for developing countries are discussed in several UNCTAD reports, as are some particular applications (e.g. warehouse receipt finance).

Turnkey construction contract:

With regard to construction & completion risks, a strong Turnkey construction contract is recommended with performance LDs to overcome cost and schedule overruns which could affect the project construction & completion. Lenders can also minimise this risk by analysing whether or not the various contractors’ area financially capable and that their obligations are covered by performance bonds or other third party sureties. In another report , another suggestion of fixed price EPC contract with delay LDs was provided to combat cost and schedule overruns. It further indicated that, a World Bank Study of 80 hydro projects studied, 76 projects exceeded their final budgets, with half of those exceeding the cost by at least a quarter. With a strong turnkey construction contract, this risk could be avoided. Another solution is putting in place a sponsor completion support in form of contingency facility, stand-by equity or credit by a credit agency.

Guaranteed-price PPA:

There should be long-term guaranteed power purchase agreement or contracts for projects to serve as a key element that can eliminate the price and volume risks from energy projects for example. Contracts could also be drawn such that banks are offered an outstanding Offtake agreement if the other party’s (purchaser) financial standing is not certain and the generator has the ability to set output pricing for the whole time of the contract. Finally on Offtake and sales risks, it is recommended that sponsors consider the fact that lenders will wish to take security to guarantee power and heat sale contract. Lenders could also be assured that should the volume and price risk surface again, the sponsor will be prepared to consider paying a portion of the debt.

On sponsor risks, the effect of reducing this risk is that an invitation could be extended to a more credit worthy sponsor for partnership in the project. Furthermore, smaller sponsors can have their governments guarantee some projects or approach a bank for structured finance after asking for a credit rating form a recognised agency and transfer the risk to a third party.

With regard to technology & operations risk, the project developer must try to reduce these risks and so must show that the technology is not new and has a high success rating. It should also be demonstrated that the contractor in charge of the building of the project is competent and conversant with the mtechnology.Operations and Maintenance of the project on completion must also be assured ion addition to the fact that warranties and guarantees have been thoroughly negotiated. This could be achieved by engaging the services of a recognised contractor with the relevant skills and competency. This is known to be highly acceptable by banks as reduced operation and technology risk.

Ghana has recently celebrated its golden jubilee of becoming an independent state dealing with its own affairs so to speak; however, politics has not changed much because politics is the ideologies of individuals. For that reason, so many people within one political party or government can bring different ideas to bear on the politics of a nation affecting project finance one way or the other. It is the inability of the synchronization or blending of these ideas that is really a matter of concern for political risk in project financing. If these could be suppressed or eliminated, then political risk and all the related risks can be mitigated. The list for project risk could be endless considering the fact that people as well as governments’ fear and anticipation are very uncertain.However; the risks could be somewhat minimised or eliminated.

Reference

1. Evaluation of PPP by EIB by (on line) (accessed on 10th February,2007)

2. Hoffman, S.L. (2001) the Law and Business of International Project Finance-a Resource for Governments, Sponsors, Lenders, Lawyers and Project Participants.2nd Edition, New York, Transnational Publishers.

3. HWWA Discussion Paper 263,January 2004 “Measuring The Potential Of Unilateral CDM-A Pilot Study”(on line) available from hm-treasury.gov.uk/media (accessed 10th February,2007)

4. Yescombe, E.R. (2002) Principles of Project Finance.UK, Academic Press.

5. “Proposed Credit to Bosnia and Herzegovina for 3rd Electric Power Reconstruction Project” available on www-wds.worldbank.org/servlet/WDS content. Accessed on 10th February,2007)

6. abnamro.com/btcpipeline (accessed on 10th February,2007)

7. member.aol.com/projectfinance/ (accessed on 10th February,2007)

8. World Investment Report 2006.FDI from Developing and Transition Economies: Implications for development. available online (accessed on 10-02-2007)

9. “Barriers to commissioning Projects” 2005 by Land Use Consultants in association with IT Power for DTI & Renewable Advisory Board. available online(accessed on 20-04-07)

10. “Encouraging investment in infrastructure services: political and regulatory risks” by S.K Sarkar & Vivek Sharma, online

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Can You Use A Panty Liner For Low Flow Periods Vaginal Discharge and 18 Effective Natural Treatments For Vaginal Discharge

You are searching about Can You Use A Panty Liner For Low Flow Periods, today we will share with you article about Can You Use A Panty Liner For Low Flow Periods was compiled and edited by our team from many sources on the internet. Hope this article on the topic Can You Use A Panty Liner For Low Flow Periods is useful to you.

Vaginal Discharge and 18 Effective Natural Treatments For Vaginal Discharge

Vaginal discharge is normal and changes during the menstrual cycle. A lot of mucus is produced before ovulation, up to 30 times more than after ovulation. It is also more watery and elastic during this phase of your cycle. You may want to wear panties during this time. Things to worry about are if the discharge is yellow or green, lumpy, curd-like, or has a foul smell. If you are concerned, see your doctor.

Causes of vaginal discharge

1. Gonorrhea in women

2. Menopause

3. Pelvic inflammatory disease

4. Sexually transmitted diseases in women (STDs)

5. Vaginal blood loss

6. Vaginitis

7. Physical condition of women

8. Fungal infection

9. Allergic reaction

10. Cervical polyp

11. Cervicitis

12. Atrophic vaginitis

13. Foreign body (e.g. forgotten tampon)

14. Hormonal change

Symptoms of vaginal discharge

1. Loss of cravings is one of the main symptoms of this discharge.

2. It also causes fertility problems.

3. Vaginal itching or burning is another sign of vaginal discharge.

4. Occasional bleeding from the vagina is also a sign of this discharge.

Natural treatment to prevent vaginal discharge

1. Mango seeds are also great for stopping white vaginal discharge. For this, apply one teaspoon of paste made from peeled mango kernels in the vaginal area.

2. Take the Yellow dock Root dietary supplement every day. Yellow dock is an herb that has been admired as an herbal remedy for vaginitis. This healing mechanism works well on its own, but must be used with other herbs for best results.

3. Tender guava leaves are useful in treating this disease. The mixture of leaves should be used as a douche. It acts as a powerful vaginal agent.

4. Eat yogurt. The vibrant cultures in yogurt can ease vaginal discharge by restoring the normal flora in your vagina.

5. As soon as you get out of the bath or after swimming, dry yourself immediately. After wiping, powder the vaginal area to remove any water or moisture.

6. Rinsing with simple warm water when the discharge is very strong. Avoid frequent douching with commercial products, as they can regularly disturb the normal vaginal flora.

7. Use plain, unscented white toilet paper. Perfumes and dyes can cause frustration and inflammation.

8. Use condoms if you are not in an equally monogamous relationship.

9. Apply pure aloe vera gel to soothe cravings.

10. Yeast infections can cause severe itching and a mushy white discharge from the vagina and sometimes accompanied by passion.

11. Trichomoniasis can cause a similar sign along with a boil in the vaginal area.

12. Psoriasis can cause the same sign.

13. Genital herpes can cause a discharge along with painful blisters that are extremely contagious.

14. Chlamydia infections can cause the same symptoms.

15. Boil one tablespoon of cumin seeds in one liter of water and drink it every day to calm the body.

16. Taking a teaspoon of aloe vera gel is also useful.

17. Eat a nutritious diet that will help you maintain your health and well-being. With a charming nutritious diet, you will gain strength, and nutrients will fill the gaps of possible deficiencies in the body. And take care of the proper circulation of the body.

18. Avoid foods that are very rich in yeast, such as mushrooms, bread and red meat. Extreme yeast overgrowth can cause a vaginal yeast infection.

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Can You Use A Lightning Component In A Lightning Flow Quick Tune-Up For Spring Bicycle Riding

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Quick Tune-Up For Spring Bicycle Riding

For those of us putting our bikes away for the winter, the time has come to dust them off and get ready to ride. A mini tune-up is required when you bring the bike out of storage. Pay particular attention to the following four areas: chain, derailleur components, brakes and wheels.

~~Chain~~

If you’ve been using an oil-based lubricant, consider switching to a wax-based product. The only advantage of an oil-based lube is that it needs to be reapplied less often, but in every other respect, a wax-based lube is superior. For example, oil collects dust and other abrasive things for the chain, while wax emits abrasives. The recommended wax-based lubricant is White Lightning.

If you’ve been using an oil-based chain lube, whether you want to switch to wax or not, remove the chain and clean it with solvent to degrease it before adding new lube. Depending on typical driving conditions, the chain should be degreased with solvent at least once a year.

~~Transmission Components~~

Lubricate the pivot points with a good petroleum-based lubricant. I use Tri-Flow. Next, lubricate and adjust the transmission braids, which may have stretched over the winter. Adjust to make the shift sharp.

~~Brakes~~

Lubricate the cables again. Use a petroleum or wax-based lubricant depending on how dusty typical driving conditions are expected to be. Adjust cables that may have stretched over the winter.

Check the pads: is there a lot of rubber; do the pads hit the rims evenly? If you are using fluid operated disc brakes, check the brake fluid level in the reservoir.

~~Wheels~~

Turn the wheel slowly and see if it is true. The wheel should not wobble at all. If it wobbles a bit and you have the tools and skills, you can make minor adjustments with a spoke wrench. However, if there is significant wobble, take the bike to a shop and have the bike serviced.

Check the tire pressure, which will surely be low after winter storage. Inflate according to the manufacturer’s recommendations printed on the tire.

Now look at the bike again. Is the seat adjustment still a good fit? Is there too much play or tightness in the bearings of the wheels, crank, pedals and headset? For full-suspension wheels, also check the suspension joints.

After this one-time check, you will be able to determine if it is time for a major adjustment. This can range from making some adjustments to cleaning and/or replacing some parts. Opinions vary on how often a major adjustment is needed. It depends on how much you drive and how much maintenance you do yourself.

Whether you do a major tune-up yourself or take your bike to a reputable bike shop, the following maintenance is occasionally required for optimal performance and safety: repacking bearings and adjusting axles, headsets, cranks and pedals; replacement of cables; wheel alignment; performing general adjustments such as transmission and brakes.

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Can You Use A Flower Pot As A Fire Pit Low-Maintenance Landscape Ideas

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Low-Maintenance Landscape Ideas

Landscaping plays an important role in making or breaking the overall look of a house. If you want to give your home an exotic touch, we turn your ordinary yard into a beautiful landscape. Many of you will avoid this because of the high responsibility that comes with landscaping. But things never stay the same!

Architects and landscape designers have come up with some really cool landscaping designs that don’t require much effort to install and can be easily maintained. Check out these top low-maintenance landscaping ideas from the pros in Atlanta, GA, and spend more time relaxing in your yard than tending to it.

Extended outdoor living spaces:

In warm weather, more outdoor living space means more fun and less work. With an extended concrete outdoor living area, you’ll have less grass to maintain. Choose a stone or wooden terrace and create a barbecue area with a nice dining area. You can even have a fireplace in the corner to enjoy being outdoors even in winter. An outdoor living space will be easier to maintain than a grassy garden and flowering shrubs.

Choose the right stone:

You won’t like replacing cracked stones every other day, so choose the right ones first. It may be expensive, but bluestone has a dense composition and is considered the most durable landscaping option. Don’t let the name fool you, this versatile stone comes in a variety of colors such as grey, orange and brown. It is a natural stone and feels great even barefoot. For less expensive options, pea and white stone are much preferred, which are considered low-maintenance materials.

Add mulch beds:

Instead of grass around your outdoor living space, add mulched beds. It’s the best landscaping investment you can make, as mulch keeps weeds at bay and fertilizes plants through decomposition. Adding mulch beds will require little maintenance as you won’t need to mow or water it. It is also quite inexpensive and only needs to be replaced once a year in the spring. Another attractive feature of mulch is its pleasant aroma that spreads outdoors.

Crumbs in flower beds:

If you want a flower landscape that requires little maintenance, make beds with crushed stones. It is a good alternative to mulch and never needs to be replaced!

Turn on the pots:

Another low-maintenance landscaping idea is to incorporate potted plants into your outdoor decor. Pots are quite easy to maintain and prove to be more versatile. You can choose different flowers by using several pots and easily move them around without having to dig. From watering plants to mowing them, everything becomes quick and easy with pots.

Remember that the exterior of the house speaks before the interior. Keep your landscape attractive and beautiful with these low-maintenance ideas.

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